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Ghana (2002)

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Ghana 2002 year

Administrative divisions 10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western
Age structure 0-14 years: 40.4% (male 4,116,600; female 4,063,654)

15-64 years: 56.1% (male 5,625,397; female 5,723,786)

65 years and over: 3.5% (male 338,352; female 376,365) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products cocoa, rice, coffee, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber
Airports 12 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Area total: 239,460 sq km

land: 230,940 sq km

water: 8,520 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Oregon
Background Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. A long series of coups resulted in the suspension of the constitution in 1981 and the banning of political parties. A new constitution, restoring multiparty politics, was approved in 1992. Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS, head of state since 1981, won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996, but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. He was succeeded by John KUFUOR, who defeated former Vice President Atta MILLS in a free and fair election.
Birth rate 28.08 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $1.603 billion

expenditures: $1.975 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Capital Accra
Climate tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
Coastline 539 km
Constitution new constitution approved 28 April 1992
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Ghana

conventional short form: Ghana

former: Gold Coast
Currency cedi (GHC)
Death rate 10.31 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $5.96 billion (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Carlin YATES

embassy: 6th and 10th Lanes, 798/1 Osu, Accra

mailing address: P. O. Box 194, Accra

telephone: [233] (21) 775-347, 775-348

FAX: [233] (21) 701-813
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Alan J. KYEREMATEN

chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520

FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $6.9 billion (1999) (1999)
Economy - overview Well endowed with natural resources, Ghana has roughly twice the per capita output of the poorer countries in West Africa. Even so, Ghana remains heavily dependent on international financial and technical assistance. Gold, timber, and cocoa production are major sources of foreign exchange. The domestic economy continues to revolve around subsistence agriculture, which accounts for 36% of GDP and employs 60% of the work force, mainly small landholders. Excessively expansionary monetary and fiscal policy prior to the 2000 elections led to accelerating inflation in early 2001. A depressed cocoa market and continued weak growth in non-traditional exports led to disappointing growth in 2001. The late 2002 crisis in Cote d'Ivoire has boosted cocoa prices markedly. It remains to be seen if this portends a long-term shift in the cocoa market. Ghana opted for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) program in 2002.
Electricity - consumption 5.484 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 422 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 400 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 5.92 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 30%

hydro: 70%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Afadjato 880 m
Environment - current issues recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Ethnic groups black African 98.5% (major tribes - Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga 8%, Gurma 3%, Yoruba 1%), European and other 1.5% (1998)
Exchange rates cedis per US dollar - 7,195 (January 2002), 7,170.76 (2001), 5,455.06 (2000), 2,669.30 (1999), 2,314.15 (1998), 2,050.17 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers; president nominates members subject to approval by Parliament

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 7 and 28 December 2000 (next to be held NA December 2004)

election results: John Agyekum KUFUOR elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - John KUFUOR 56.4%, John Atta MILLS 43.6%
Exports 422 million kWh (2000)
Exports $1.94 billion f.o.b. (2000)
Exports - commodities gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds
Exports - partners Togo, UK, Italy, Netherlands, Germany, US, France (1998)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band
GDP purchasing power parity - $39.4 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 36%

industry: 25%

services: 39% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,980 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 8 00 N, 2 00 W
Geography - note Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake
Highways total: 38,940 km

paved: 9,346 km (including 30 km of expressways)

unpaved: 29,594 km (2001)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 30% (1998)
Illicit drugs illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; major transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and, to a lesser extent, South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US; widespread crime and corruption have made money laundering a problem, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center
Imports 400 million kWh (2000)
Imports $2.83 billion f.o.b. (2000)
Imports - commodities capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs
Imports - partners UK, Nigeria, US, Germany, Italy, Spain (1998)
Independence 6 March 1957 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 3.8% (2000 est.)
Industries mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing
Infant mortality rate 55.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 25% (2001 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 12 (2000)
Irrigated land 110 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court
Labor force 9 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 60%, industry 15%, services 25% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 2,094 km

border countries: Burkina Faso 549 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km
Land use arable land: 15.82%

permanent crops: 7.47%

other: 76.71% (1998 est.)
Languages English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga)
Legal system based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament (200 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 7 December 2000 (next to be held NA December 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NPP 100, NDC 92, PNC 3, CPP 1, independents 4
Life expectancy at birth total population: 57.06 years

male: 55.66 years

female: 58.51 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 64.5%

male: 75.9%

female: 53.5% (1995 est.)
Location Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo
Map references Africa
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,450 GRT/22,097 DWT

ships by type: petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 5

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Brazil 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Spain 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $35.2 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.7% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 5,045,355 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 2,799,292 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 213,237 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 6 March (1957)
Nationality noun: Ghanaian(s)

adjective: Ghanaian
Natural hazards dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds occur from January to March; droughts
Natural resources gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower
Net migration rate -0.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
People - note there are 9,500 Liberians, 2,000 Sierra Leoneans, and 1,000 Togolese refugees residing in Ghana (2002)
Pipelines 0 km
Political parties and leaders Convention People's Party or CPP [Nii Noi DOWUONA, general secretary]; Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere or EGLE [Owuraku AMOFA, chairman]; Great Consolidated Popular Party or GCPP [Dan LARTY]; National Convention Party or NCP [Sarpong KUMA-KUMA]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr. Huudu YAHAYA, general secretary]; New Patriotic Party or NPP [Samuel Arthur ODOI-SYKES]; People's Convention Party or PCP [P. K. DONKOH-AYIFI, acting chairman]; People's Heritage Party or PHP [Emmanuel Alexander ERSKINE]; People's National Convention or PNC [Edward MAHAMA]; Reform Party [Kyeretwie OPUKU, general secretary]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 20,244,154

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 31% (1992 est.)
Population growth rate 1.7% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Takoradi, Tema
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 49, shortwave 3 (2001)
Radios 12.5 million (2001)
Railways total: 953 km

narrow gauge: 953 km 1.067-m gauge; undergoing major rehabilitation (2001 est.)
Religions indigenous beliefs 21%, Muslim 16%, Christian 63%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: poor to fair system; Internet accessible; many rural communities not yet connected; expansion of services is underway

domestic: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed

international: satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors
Telephones - main lines in use 240,000 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular 150,000 (2001)
Television broadcast stations 10 (2001)
Terrain mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
Total fertility rate 3.69 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 20% (1997 est.)
Waterways 1,293 km

note: Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 168 km of perennial navigation for launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways
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