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Ghana (2004)

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Ghana 2004 year

Administrative divisions 10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western
Age structure 0-14 years: 38% (male 3,988,800; female 3,904,989)

15-64 years: 58.3% (male 6,030,151; female 6,071,725)

65 years and over: 3.7% (male 359,042; female 402,325) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products cocoa, rice, coffee, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber
Airports 12 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 2 (2004 est.)
Area total: 239,460 sq km

land: 230,940 sq km

water: 8,520 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Oregon
Background Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. A long series of coups resulted in the suspension of the constitution in 1981 and the banning of political parties. A new constitution, restoring multiparty politics, was approved in 1992. Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS, head of state since 1981, won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996, but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. He was succeeded by John KUFUOR, who defeated former Vice President Atta MILLS in a free and fair election.
Birth rate 24.9 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $1.943 billion

expenditures: $2.192 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Capital Accra
Climate tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
Coastline 539 km
Constitution approved 28 April 1992
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Ghana

conventional short form: Ghana

former: Gold Coast
Currency cedi (GHC)
Death rate 10.67 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $7.398 billion (2003 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Carlin YATES

embassy: 6th and 10th Lanes, 798/1 Osu, Accra

mailing address: P. O. Box 194, Accra

telephone: [233] (21) 775-347, 775-348

FAX: [233] (21) 701-813
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Alan J. KYEREMATEN

chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520

FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international Ghana must still deal with refugees and returning nationals escaping rebel fighting in Cote d'Ivoire
Economic aid - recipient $6.9 billion (1999)
Economy - overview Well endowed with natural resources, Ghana has roughly twice the per capita output of the poorer countries in West Africa. Even so, Ghana remains heavily dependent on international financial and technical assistance. Gold, timber, and cocoa production are major sources of foreign exchange. The domestic economy continues to revolve around subsistence agriculture, which accounts for 35% of GDP and employs 60% of the work force, mainly small landholders. Ghana opted for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) program in 2002. Policy priorities include tighter monetary and fiscal policies, accelerated privatization, and improvement of social services. Receipts from the gold sector should help sustain GDP growth in 2004. Inflation should ease, but remain a major internal problem.
Electricity - consumption 8.835 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 300 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 950 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 8.801 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Afadjato 880 m
Environment - current issues recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Ethnic groups black African 98.5% (major tribes - Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga 8%, Gurma 3%, Yoruba 1%), European and other 1.5% (1998)
Exchange rates cedis per US dollar - NA (2003), 7,932.7 (2002), 7,170.76 (2001), 5,455.06 (2000), 2,669.3 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers; president nominates members subject to approval by Parliament

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms; election last held 7 December 2004 (next to be held December 2008)

election results: John Agyekum KUFUOR reelected president in election; percent of vote - John KUFUOR 53.4%, John Atta MILLS 43.7%
Exports 300 million kWh (2001)
Exports $2.642 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds
Exports - partners Netherlands 11.2%, UK 10.7%, France 7.7%, Germany 6.2%, Japan 5.2%, Italy 4.6%, Turkey 4.4%, US 4.3% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band
GDP purchasing power parity - $44.44 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 35.4%

industry: 25.4%

services: 39.2% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,200 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.7% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 8 00 N, 2 00 W
Geography - note Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake
Highways total: 39,409 km

paved: 11,665 km

unpaved: 27,744 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.2%

highest 10%: 30.1% (1999)
Illicit drugs illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; major transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and, to a lesser extent, South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US; widespread crime and corruption have made money laundering a problem, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center
Imports 950 million kWh (2001)
Imports $3.24 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs
Imports - partners Nigeria 13.2%, China 9.3%, UK 7.2%, US 6.1%, Germany 4.8%, France 4.5%, South Africa 4% (2003)
Independence 6 March 1957 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 3.8% (2000 est.)
Industries mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing
Infant mortality rate total: 52.22 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 55.1 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 49.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 26.7% (2003 est.)
Irrigated land 110 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court
Labor force 10 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 60%, industry 15%, services 25% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 2,094 km

border countries: Burkina Faso 549 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km
Land use arable land: 16.26%

permanent crops: 9.67%

other: 74.07% (2001)
Languages English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga)
Legal system based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament (230 seats; note - increased from 200 seats in last election; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 7 December 2004 (next to be held December 2008)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NPP 128, NDC 92, other 10
Life expectancy at birth total population: 56.27 years

male: 55.36 years

female: 57.22 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 74.8%

male: 82.7%

female: 67.1% (2003 est.)
Location Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm
Merchant marine total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 19,086 GRT/26,185 DWT

by type: petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 5

foreign-owned: Brazil 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Spain 1 (2004 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $44 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.6% (2003)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 5,391,378 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 2,994,600 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 244,809 (2004 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 6 March (1957)
Nationality noun: Ghanaian(s)

adjective: Ghanaian
Natural hazards dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds occur from January to March; droughts
Natural resources gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower
Net migration rate -0.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
People - note there are 9,500 Liberians, 2,000 Sierra Leoneans, and 1,000 Togolese refugees residing in Ghana (2002)
Pipelines refined products 74 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Convention People's Party or CPP [Nii Noi DOWUONA, general secretary]; Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere or EGLE [Owuraku AMOFA, chairman]; Great Consolidated Popular Party or GCPP [Dan LARTY]; National Convention Party or NCP [Sarpong KUMA-KUMA]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr. Huudu YAHAYA, general secretary]; New Patriotic Party or NPP [Samuel Arthur ODOI-SYKES]; People's Convention Party or PCP [P. K. DONKOH-AYIFI, acting chairman]; People's Heritage Party or PHP [Emmanuel Alexander ERSKINE]; People's National Convention or PNC [Edward MAHAMA]; Reform Party [Kyeretwie OPUKU, general secretary]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 20,757,032

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 31.4% (1992 est.)
Population growth rate 1.36% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Takoradi, Tema
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 49, shortwave 3 (2001)
Railways total: 953 km

narrow gauge: 953 km 1.067-m gauge (2003)
Religions Christian 63%, Muslim 16%, indigenous beliefs 21%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: poor to fair system; Internet accessible; many rural communities not yet connected; expansion of services is underway

domestic: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed

international: country code - 233; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors; fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
Telephones - main lines in use 302,300 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 799,900 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 10 (2001)
Terrain mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
Total fertility rate 3.17 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 20% (1997 est.)
Waterways 1,293 km

note: 168 km for launches and lighters on Volta, Ankobra, and Tano rivers; 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways on Lake Volta (2003)
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