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Ghana (2006)

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Ghana 2006 year

Administrative divisions 10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western
Age structure 0-14 years: 38.8% (male 4,395,744/female 4,288,720)

15-64 years: 57.7% (male 6,450,828/female 6,483,781)

65 years and over: 3.5% (male 371,428/female 419,071) (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products cocoa, rice, coffee, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber
Airports 12 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways total: 7

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 2 (2006)
Area total: 239,460 sq km

land: 230,940 sq km

water: 8,520 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Oregon
Background Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. A long series of coups resulted in the suspension of the constitution in 1981 and a ban on political parties. A new constitution, restoring multiparty politics, was approved in 1992. Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS, head of state since 1981, won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996, but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR, who defeated former Vice President Atta MILLS in a free and fair election, succeeded him.
Birth rate 30.52 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budget revenues: $3.216 billion

expenditures: $3.506 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Capital name: Accra

geographic coordinates: 5 33 N, 0 13 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
Coastline 539 km
Constitution approved 28 April 1992
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Ghana

conventional short form: Ghana

former: Gold Coast
Death rate 9.72 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Debt - external $6.999 billion (2005 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Carlin YATES

embassy: 6th and 10th Lanes, 798/1 Osu, Accra

mailing address: P. O. Box 194, Accra

telephone: [233] (21) 775-347, 775-348

FAX: [233] (21) 701-813
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Fritz Kwabena POKU

chancery: 1156 15th St. NW #905, Washington, DC 20005

telephone: [1] (202) 785-1379

FAX: [1] (202) 785-1430

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international Ghana struggles to accommodate returning nationals who worked in the cocoa plantations and escaped fighting in Cote d'Ivoire
Economic aid - recipient $6.9 billion (1999)
Economy - overview Well endowed with natural resources, Ghana has roughly twice the per capita output of the poorer countries in West Africa. Even so, Ghana remains heavily dependent on international financial and technical assistance. Gold, timber, and cocoa production are major sources of foreign exchange. The domestic economy continues to revolve around subsistence agriculture, which accounts for 34% of GDP and employs 60% of the work force, mainly small landholders. Ghana opted for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) program in 2002, but was included in a G-8 debt relief program decided upon at the Gleneagles Summit in July 2005. Priorities under its current $38 million Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) include tighter monetary and fiscal policies, accelerated privatization, and improvement of social services. Receipts from the gold sector helped sustain GDP growth in 2005 along with record high prices for Ghana's largest cocoa crop to date. Inflation should ease but remains a major internal problem. Ghana also remains a candidate country to benefit from Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) funding that could assist in transforming Ghana's agricultural export sector. A final decision on its MCC bid is expected in spring 2006.
Electricity - consumption 5.081 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports 400 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports 500 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - production 5.356 billion kWh (2003)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Afadjato 880 m
Environment - current issues recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Ethnic groups African 98.5% (includes Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga 8%, Gurma 3%, Yoruba 1%), European and other 1.5% (1998)
Exchange rates cedis per US dollar - 9,072.5 (2005), 9,004.6 (2004), 8,677.4 (2003), 7,932.7 (2002), 7,170.8 (2001)
Executive branch chief of state: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers; president nominates members subject to approval by Parliament

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 7 December 2004 (next to be held December 2008)

election results: John Agyekum KUFUOR reelected president in election; percent of vote - John KUFUOR 53.4%, John Atta MILLS 43.7%
Exports 400 million kWh (2003)
Exports $2.911 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds
Exports - partners Netherlands 12.6%, UK 8.3%, US 6.7%, Belgium 5.8%, France 5.7%, Germany 4.5% (2005)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 36.6%

industry: 24.6%

services: 38.7% (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.9% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 8 00 N, 2 00 W
Geography - note Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.2%

highest 10%: 30.1% (1999)
Illicit drugs illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; major transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and, to a lesser extent, South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US; widespread crime and money laundering problem, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center
Imports 500 million kWh (2003)
Imports $4.273 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs
Imports - partners Nigeria 15.4%, China 12.7%, US 6.4%, UK 5.3%, Netherlands 4.1%, South Africa 4.1% (2005)
Independence 6 March 1957 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 3.8% (2000 est.)
Industries mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building
Infant mortality rate total: 55.02 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 59.56 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 50.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 15.1% (2005 est.)
Irrigated land 310 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court
Labor force 10.62 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 60%

industry: 15%

services: 25% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 2,094 km

border countries: Burkina Faso 549 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km
Land use arable land: 17.54%

permanent crops: 9.22%

other: 73.24% (2005)
Languages English (official), African languages (including Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga)
Legal system based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament (230 seats; note - increased from 200 seats in last election; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 7 December 2004 (next to be held December 2008)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NPP 128, NDC 92, other 10
Life expectancy at birth total population: 58.87 years

male: 58.07 years

female: 59.69 years (2006 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 74.8%

male: 82.7%

female: 67.1% (2003 est.)
Location Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm
Merchant marine total: 4 ships (1000 GRT or over) 6,308 GRT/9,418 DWT

by type: cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 2

foreign-owned: 1 (Brazil 1) (2006)
Military branches Ghanaian Army, Ghanaian Navy, Ghanaian Air Force (2006)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $83.65 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.8% (2005 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 6 March (1957)
Nationality noun: Ghanaian(s)

adjective: Ghanaian
Natural hazards dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds occur from January to March; droughts
Natural resources gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone
Net migration rate -0.11 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Pipelines oil 13 km; refined products 316 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders Convention People's Party or CPP [Nii Noi DOWUONA, general secretary]; Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere or EGLE [Owuraku AMOFA, chairman]; Great Consolidated Popular Party or GCPP [Dan LARTY]; National Convention Party or NCP [Sarpong KUMA-KUMA]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr. Huudu YAHAYA, general secretary]; New Patriotic Party or NPP [Samuel Arthur ODOI-SYKES]; People's Convention Party or PCP [P. K. DONKOH-AYIFI, acting chairman]; People's Heritage Party or PHP [Emmanuel Alexander ERSKINE]; People's National Convention or PNC [Edward MAHAMA]; Reform Party [Kyeretwie OPUKU, general secretary]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 22,409,572

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Population below poverty line 31.4% (1992 est.)
Population growth rate 2.07% (2006 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 49, shortwave 3 (2001)
Railways total: 953 km

narrow gauge: 953 km 1.067-m gauge (2005)
Religions Christian 63%, Muslim 16%, indigenous beliefs 21%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: poor to fair system; Internet accessible; many rural communities not yet connected; expansion of services is underway

domestic: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed

international: country code - 233; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors; fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
Telephones - main lines in use 321,500 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2.842 million (2005)
Television broadcast stations 10 (2001)
Terrain mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
Total fertility rate 3.99 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate 20% (1997 est.)
Waterways 1,293 km

note: 168 km for launches and lighters on Volta, Ankobra, and Tano rivers; 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways on Lake Volta (2005)
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