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Oman (2008)

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Oman 2008 year

Administrative divisions 5 regions (manatiq, singular - mintaqat) and 4 governorates* (muhafazat, singular - muhafazat) Ad Dakhiliyah, Al Batinah, Al Buraymi*, Al Wusta, Ash Sharqiyah, Az Zahirah, Masqat*, Musandam*, Zufar (Dhofar)*
Age structure 0-14 years: 42.7% (male 698,461/female 670,793)

15-64 years: 54.6% (male 1,026,686/female 723,712)

65 years and over: 2.7% (male 47,534/female 37,711) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables; camels, cattle; fish
Airports 137 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 7

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 130

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 51

914 to 1,523 m: 35

under 914 m: 34 (2007)
Area total: 212,460 sq km

land: 212,460 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Kansas
Background The inhabitants of the area of Oman have long prospered on Indian Ocean trade. In the late 18th century, a newly established sultanate in Muscat signed the first in a series of friendship treaties with Britain. Over time, Oman's dependence on British political and military advisors increased, but it never became a British colony. In 1970, QABOOS bin Said al-Said overthrew the restrictive rule of his father; he has ruled as sultan ever since. His extensive modernization program has opened the country to the outside world while preserving the longstanding close ties with the UK. Oman's moderate, independent foreign policy has sought to maintain good relations with all Middle Eastern countries.
Birth rate 35.76 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $13.82 billion

expenditures: $13.67 billion (2007 est.)
Capital name: Muscat

geographic coordinates: 23 37 N, 58 35 E

time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south
Coastline 2,092 km
Constitution none; note - on 6 November 1996, Sultan QABOOS issued a royal decree promulgating a basic law considered by the government to be a constitution which, among other things, clarifies the royal succession, provides for a prime minister, bars ministers from holding interests in companies doing business with the government, establishes a bicameral legislature, and guarantees basic civil liberties for Omani citizens
Country name conventional long form: Sultanate of Oman

conventional short form: Oman

local long form: Saltanat Uman

local short form: Uman

former: Muscat and Oman
Death rate 3.78 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $3.483 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Gary A. GRAPPO

embassy: Jameat A'Duwal Al Arabiya Street, Al Khuwair area, Muscat

mailing address: P. O. Box 202, P.C. 115, Madinat Sultan Qaboos, Muscat

telephone: [968] 24-643-400

FAX: [968] 24-699771
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Hunaina bint Sultan bin Ahmad al-MUGHAIRI

chancery: 2535 Belmont Road, NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 387-1980 through 1981, 1988

FAX: [1] (202) 745-4933
Disputes - international boundary agreement reportedly signed and ratified with UAE in 2003 for entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah exclave, but details of the alignment have not been made public
Economic aid - recipient $30.68 million (2005)
Economy - overview Oman is a middle-income economy that is heavily dependent on dwindling oil resources, but sustained high oil prices in recent years have helped build Oman's budget and trade surpluses and foreign reserves. Oman joined the World Trade Organization in November 2000 and continues to liberalize its markets. It ratified a free trade agreement with the US in September 2006, and, through the Gulf Cooperation Council, seeks similar agreements with the EU, China and Japan. As a result of its dwindling oil resources, Oman is actively pursuing a development plan that focuses on diversification, industrialization, and privatization, with the objective of reducing the oil sector's contribution to GDP to 9 percent by 2020. Muscat is attempting to "Omanize" the labor force by replacing foreign expatriate workers with local workers. Oman actively seeks private foreign investors, especially in the industrial, information technology, tourism, and higher education fields. Industrial development plans focus on gas resources, metal manufacturing, petrochemicals, and international transshipment ports.
Electricity - consumption 8.661 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 11.89 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m

highest point: Jabal Shams 2,980 m
Environment - current issues rising soil salinity; beach pollution from oil spills; very limited natural fresh water resources
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), African
Exchange rates Omani rials per US dollar - 0.3845 (2007), 0.3845 (2006), 0.3845 (2005), 0.3845 (2004), 0.3845 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said al-Said (sultan since 23 July 1970 and prime minister since 23 July 1972); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said al-Said (sultan since 23 July 1970 and prime minister since 23 July 1972)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $22.68 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 10.19 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 733,100 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities petroleum, reexports, fish, metals, textiles
Exports - partners China 23.6%, South Korea 17.9%, Japan 10.9%, Thailand 10.7%, South Africa 7.7%, UAE 6.3% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal bands of white, red, and green of equal width with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist side; the national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two crossed swords in scabbards) in white is centered near the top of the vertical band
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 2.2%

industry: 38.3%

services: 59.5% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.3% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 21 00 N, 57 00 E
Geography - note strategic location on Musandam Peninsula adjacent to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil
Heliports 2 (2007)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $11 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 15,440 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, livestock, lubricants
Imports - partners UAE 22.4%, Japan 16.4%, US 8.1%, Germany 5.5%, India 4.3% (2006)
Independence 1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)
Industrial production growth rate 3.2% (2007 est.)
Industries crude oil production and refining, natural and liquefied natural gas (LNG) production; construction, cement, copper, steel, chemicals, optic fiber
Infant mortality rate total: 18.28 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 20.96 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 15.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4% (2007 est.)
International organization participation ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land 720 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court

note: the nascent civil court system, administered by region, has judges who practice secular and Shari'a law
Labor force 920,000 (2002 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%
Land boundaries total: 1,374 km

border countries: Saudi Arabia 676 km, UAE 410 km, Yemen 288 km
Land use arable land: 0.12%

permanent crops: 0.14%

other: 99.74% (2005)
Languages Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects
Legal system based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate appeal to the monarch; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Majlis Oman consists of Majlis al-Dawla or upper chamber (70 seats; members appointed by the monarch; has advisory powers only) and Majlis al-Shura or lower chamber (84 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms; body has some limited power to propose legislation, but otherwise has only advisory powers)

elections: last held 27 October 2007 (next to be held in 2011)

election results: new candidates won 46 seats and 38 members of the outgoing Majlis kept their positions; none of the 20 female candidates were elected
Life expectancy at birth total population: 73.62 years

male: 71.37 years

female: 75.99 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: NA

total population: 81.4%

male: 86.8%

female: 73.5% (2003 est.)
Location Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and Persian Gulf, between Yemen and UAE
Map references Middle East
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Merchant marine total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 12,155 GRT/7,244 DWT

by type: chemical tanker 1, passenger 1

registered in other countries: 1 (Panama 1) (2007)
Military branches Sultan's Armed Forces (SAF): Royal Army of Oman, Royal Navy of Oman, Royal Air Force of Oman (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Sultanat Oman, RAFO) (2007)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 11.4% (2005 est.)
National holiday Birthday of Sultan QABOOS, 18 November (1940)
Nationality noun: Omani(s)

adjective: Omani
Natural hazards summer winds often raise large sandstorms and dust storms in interior; periodic droughts
Natural resources petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas
Net migration rate 0.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines gas 4,126 km; oil 3,558 km (2007)
Political parties and leaders none
Political pressure groups and leaders none
Population 3,204,897

note: includes 577,293 non-nationals (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 3.234% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 3, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)
Religions Ibadhi Muslim 75%, other (includes Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim, Hindu) 25%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.041 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.419 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.26 male(s)/female

total population: 1.238 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 21 years of age; universal; note - members of the military and security forces are not allowed to vote
Telephone system general assessment: modern system consisting of open-wire, microwave, and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable

domestic: fixed-line and mobile-cellular subscribership both increasing; open-wire, microwave, radiotelephone communications, and a domestic satellite system with 8 earth stations

international: country code - 968; the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) and the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat
Telephones - main lines in use 278,300 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1.818 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 13 (plus 25 repeaters) (1999)
Terrain central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south
Total fertility rate 5.7 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 15% (2004 est.)
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