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Oman (2001)

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Oman 2001 year

Administrative divisions 6 regions (mintaqat, singular - mintaqah) and 2 governorates* (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah) Ad Dakhiliyah, Al Batinah, Al Wusta, Ash Sharqiyah, Az Zahirah, Masqat, Musandam*, Zufar*; note - the US Embassy in Oman reports that Masqat is a governorate, but this has not been confirmed by the US Board of Geographic Names (BGN)
Age structure 0-14 years:
41.51% (male 554,727; female 533,627)

15-64 years:
56.12% (male 894,978; female 576,672)

65 years and over:
2.37% (male 32,863; female 29,331) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables; camels, cattle; fish
Airports 143 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

914 to 1,523 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
36 (2000 est.)
Area total:
212,460 sq km

212,460 sq km

0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Kansas
Background In 1970, QABOOS bin Said Al Said ousted his father and has ruled as sultan ever since. His extensive modernization program has opened the country to the outside world and has preserved a long-standing political and military relationship with the UK. Oman's moderate, independent foreign policy has sought to maintain good relations with all Middle Eastern countries.
Birth rate 37.96 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$4.7 billion

$5.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $490 million (1999)
Capital Muscat
Climate dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south
Coastline 2,092 km
Constitution none; note - on 6 November 1996, Sultan QABOOS issued a royal decree promulgating a new basic law which, among other things, clarifies the royal succession, provides for a prime minister, bars ministers from holding interests in companies doing business with the government, establishes a bicameral legislature, and guarantees basic civil liberties for Omani citizens
Country name conventional long form:
Sultanate of Oman

conventional short form:

local long form:
Saltanat Uman

local short form:

Muscat and Oman
Currency Omani rial (OMR)
Death rate 4.1 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $4.5 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador John B. CRAIG

Jameat A'Duwal Al Arabiya Street, Al Khuwair area, Muscat

mailing address:
international: P. O. Box 202, Code No. 115, Medinat Al-Sultan Qaboos, Muscat

[968] 698989

[968] 699189
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Abdallah bin Muhammad bin Aqil al-DHAHAB

2535 Belmont Road, NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 387-1980 through 1981, 1988

[1] (202) 745-4933
Disputes - international boundary with the UAE has not been bilaterally defined; northern section in the Musandam Peninsula is an administrative boundary
Economic aid - recipient $76.4 million (1995)
Economy - overview Oman's economic performance improved significantly in 2000 due largely to the upturn in oil prices. The government is moving ahead with privatization of its utilities, the development of a body of commercial law to facilitate foreign investment, and increased budgetary outlays. Oman continues to liberalize its markets and joined the World Trade Organization (WTrO) in November 2000.
Electricity - consumption 8.026 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 8.63 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Arabian Sea 0 m

highest point:
Jabal Shams 2,980 m
Environment - current issues rising soil salinity; beach pollution from oil spills; very limited natural fresh water resources
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), African
Exchange rates Omani rials per US dollar - 0.3845 (fixed rate since 1986)
Executive branch chief of state:
Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said (since 23 July 1970); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:
Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said (since 23 July 1970); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

Cabinet appointed by the monarch

none; the monarch is hereditary
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $11.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities petroleum, reexports, fish, metals, textiles
Exports - partners Japan 27%, China 12%, Thailand 18%, UAE 12%, South Korea 12%, US (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal bands of white, red, and green of equal width with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist side; the national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two crossed swords in scabbards) in white is centered at the top of the vertical band
GDP purchasing power parity - $19.6 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


57% (1999 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $7,700 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.6% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 21 00 N, 57 00 E
Geography - note strategic location on Musandam Peninsula adjacent to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil
Heliports 1 (2000 est.)
Highways total:
32,800 km

9,840 km (including 550 km of expressways)

22,960 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Imports 0 kWh (1999)
Imports $4.5 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, livestock, lubricants
Imports - partners UAE 26% (largely reexports), Japan 16%, UK 9%, Italy 7%, Germany 6%, US (1999)
Independence 1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)
Industrial production growth rate 4% (2000 est.)
Industries crude oil production and refining, natural gas production, construction, cement, copper
Infant mortality rate 22.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) -0.8% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 580 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court

the nascent civil court system, administered by region, has non-Islamic judges as well as traditional Islamic judges
Labor force 850,000 (1997 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Land boundaries total:
1,374 km

border countries:
Saudi Arabia 676 km, UAE 410 km, Yemen 288 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

95% (1993 est.)
Languages Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects
Legal system based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate appeal to the monarch; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Majlis Oman consists of an upper chamber or Majlis al-Dawla (48 seats; members appointed by the monarch; has advisory powers only) and a lower chamber or Majlis al-Shura (83 seats; members elected by limited suffrage, however, the monarch makes final selections and can negate election results; body has some limited power to propose legislation, but otherwise has only advisory powers)

last held NA September 2000 (next to be held NA September 2003)

election results:
NA; note - two women were elected for the first time to Majlis al-Shura, about 100,000 people voted
Life expectancy at birth total population:
72.04 years

69.9 years

74.29 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:

total population:
approaching 80%


Location Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and Persian Gulf, between Yemen and UAE
Map references Middle East
Maritime claims contiguous zone:
24 NM

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,167 GRT/11,307 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 2, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1 (2000 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary (includes Royal Oman Police)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $2.4 billion (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 13% (FY00)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
771,919 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
429,811 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 14 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
26,469 (2001 est.)
National holiday Birthday of Sultan QABOOS, 18 November (1940)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards summer winds often raise large sandstorms and dust storms in interior; periodic droughts
Natural resources petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas
Net migration rate 0.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 1,300 km; natural gas 1,030 km
Political parties and leaders none
Political pressure groups and leaders none
Population 2,622,198

includes 527,078 non-nationals (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 3.43% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Matrah, Mina' al Fahl, Mina' Raysut
Radio broadcast stations AM 3, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)
Radios 1.4 million (1997)
Railways 0 km
Religions Ibadhi Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim, Hindu
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.55 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
1.12 male(s)/female

total population:
1.3 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage in Oman's most recent elections in 2000, limited to approximately 175,000 Omanis chosen by the government to vote in elections for the Majlis ash-Shura
Telephone system general assessment:
modern system consisting of open wire, microwave, and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable

open wire, microwave, radiotelephone communications, and a domestic satellite system with 8 earth stations

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat
Telephones - main lines in use 201,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 59,822 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 13 (plus 25 low-power repeaters) (1999)
Terrain central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south
Total fertility rate 6.04 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways none
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