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Oman (2003)

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Oman 2003 year

Administrative divisions 6 regions (mintaqat, singular - mintaqah) and 2 governorates* (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah) Ad Dakhiliyah, Al Batinah, Al Wusta, Ash Sharqiyah, Az Zahirah, Masqat, Musandam*, Zufar*; note - the US Embassy in Oman reports that Masqat is a governorate, but this has not been confirmed by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN)
Age structure 0-14 years: 42.2% (male 603,664; female 580,469)

15-64 years: 55.4% (male 934,621; female 620,158)

65 years and over: 2.4% (male 36,504; female 31,709) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables; camels, cattle; fish
Airports 139 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 6

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 133

over 3,047 m: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 55

914 to 1,523 m: 37

under 914 m: 32 (2002)
Area total: 212,460 sq km

land: 212,460 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Kansas
Background In 1970, QABOOS bin Said Al Said ousted his father and has ruled as sultan ever since. His extensive modernization program has opened the country to the outside world and has preserved a long-standing political and military relationship with the UK. Oman's moderate, independent foreign policy has sought to maintain good relations with all Middle Eastern countries.
Birth rate 37.47 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $9.2 billion

expenditures: $6.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Capital Muscat
Climate dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south
Coastline 2,092 km
Constitution none; note - on 6 November 1996, Sultan QABOOS issued a royal decree promulgating a new basic law which, among other things, clarifies the royal succession, provides for a prime minister, bars ministers from holding interests in companies doing business with the government, establishes a bicameral legislature, and guarantees basic civil liberties for Omani citizens
Country name conventional long form: Sultanate of Oman

conventional short form: Oman

local long form: Saltanat Uman

local short form: Uman

former: Muscat and Oman
Currency Omani rial (OMR)
Death rate 3.97 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $5.7 billion (2002 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Richard Lewis BALTIMORE III

embassy: Jameat A'Duwal Al Arabiya Street, Al Khuwair area, Muscat

mailing address: P. O. Box 202, P.C. 115, Madinat Al-Sultan Qaboos, Muscat

telephone: [968] 698989, extension 203

FAX: [968] 699771
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Muhammad bin Ali bin Thani AL-KHUSSAIBY

chancery: 2535 Belmont Road, NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 387-1980 through 1981, 1988

FAX: [1] (202) 745-4933
Disputes - international boundary agreement signed and ratified with UAE in 2003 for entire border, including Oman's Musandam Peninsula and Al Madhah enclaves
Economic aid - recipient $76.4 million (1995)
Economy - overview Oman's economic performance improved significantly in 2000 due largely to the upturn in oil prices. The government is moving ahead with privatization of its utilities, the development of a body of commercial law to facilitate foreign investment, and increased budgetary outlays. Oman continues to liberalize its markets and joined the World Trade Organization (WTrO) in November 2000. GDP growth improved in 2001 despite the global slowdown and then fell back to 2.2% in 2002. In order to reduce unemployment, the government is trying to replace expatriate workers with local workers. Another government objective is the development of the nation's gas resources.
Electricity - consumption 8.625 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 9.274 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m

highest point: Jabal Shams 2,980 m
Environment - current issues rising soil salinity; beach pollution from oil spills; very limited natural fresh water resources
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), African
Exchange rates Omani rials per US dollar - 0.38 (2002), 0.38 (2001), 0.38 (2000), 0.38 (1999), 0.38 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said (since 23 July 1970); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS bin Said Al Said (since 23 July 1970); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $10.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports 7.43 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities petroleum, reexports, fish, metals, textiles
Exports - partners Japan 20.5%, South Korea 18.5%, China 14.1%, Thailand 11.7%, UAE 9.2%, Singapore 4.3%, US 4.1% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three horizontal bands of white, red, and green of equal width with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist side; the national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two crossed swords in scabbards) in white is centered near the top of the vertical band
GDP purchasing power parity - $22.4 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 3%

industry: 55%

services: 42% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $8,300 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.2% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 21 00 N, 57 00 E
Geography - note strategic location on Musandam Peninsula adjacent to Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil
Heliports 1 (2002)
Highways total: 34,965 km

paved: 9,673 km (including 550 km of expressways)

unpaved: 25,292 km (2001)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $5.5 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, livestock, lubricants
Imports - partners UAE 27.5%, Japan 16.7%, UK 7.4%, US 6.9%, Germany 5% (2002)
Independence 1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)
Industrial production growth rate 4% (2000 est.)
Industries crude oil production and refining, natural gas production, construction, cement, copper
Infant mortality rate total: 21.01 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 24.03 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 17.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) -0.5% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 1 (2000)
Irrigated land 620 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court

note: the nascent civil court system, administered by region, has non-Islamic judges as well as traditional Islamic judges
Labor force 920,000 (2002 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Land boundaries total: 1,374 km

border countries: Saudi Arabia 676 km, UAE 410 km, Yemen 288 km
Land use arable land: 0.08%

permanent crops: 0.22%

other: 99.7% (1998 est.)
Languages Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Urdu, Indian dialects
Legal system based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate appeal to the monarch; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Majlis Oman consists of an upper chamber or Majlis al-Dawla (48 seats; members appointed by the monarch; has advisory powers only) and a lower chamber or Majlis al-Shura (83 seats; members elected by limited suffrage for three-year term, however, the monarch makes final selections and can negate election results; body has some limited power to propose legislation, but otherwise has only advisory powers)

elections: last held 4 October 2003 (next to be held NA 2006)

election results: NA
Life expectancy at birth total population: 72.58 years

male: 70.4 years

female: 74.86 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: NA

total population: 75.8%

male: 83.1%

female: 67.2% (2003 est.)
Location Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and Persian Gulf, between Yemen and UAE
Map references Middle East
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 17,291 GRT/9,457 DWT

ships by type: container 1, passenger 2

note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Singapore 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Royal Omani Armed Forces (Army, Navy, Air Force), Royal Omani Police
Military expenditures - dollar figure $2.424 billion (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 12.2% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 788,429 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 438,326 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 14 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 29,485 (2003 est.)
National holiday Birthday of Sultan QABOOS, 18 November (1940)
Nationality noun: Omani(s)

adjective: Omani
Natural hazards summer winds often raise large sandstorms and dust storms in interior; periodic droughts
Natural resources petroleum, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas
Net migration rate 0.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines gas 3,599 km; oil 3,187 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders none
Political pressure groups and leaders none
Population 2,807,125

note: includes 577,293 non-nationals (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 3.38% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Matrah, Mina' al Fahl, Mina' Raysut
Radio broadcast stations AM 3, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)
Railways 0 km
Religions Ibadhi Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim, Hindu
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.51 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.15 male(s)/female

total population: 1.28 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage in Oman's most recent elections in 2000, limited to approximately 175,000 Omanis chosen by the government to vote in elections for the Majlis al-Shura
Telephone system general assessment: modern system consisting of open-wire, microwave, and radiotelephone communication stations; limited coaxial cable

domestic: open-wire, microwave, radiotelephone communications, and a domestic satellite system with 8 earth stations

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat
Telephones - main lines in use 201,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 59,822 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 13 (plus 25 low-power repeaters) (1999)
Terrain central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south
Total fertility rate 5.94 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways none
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