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Togo (2008)

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Togo 2008 year

Administrative divisions 5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes
Age structure 0-14 years: 42% (male 1,201,840/female 1,193,416)

15-64 years: 55.3% (male 1,535,855/female 1,617,631)

65 years and over: 2.7% (male 61,658/female 91,179) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
Airports 9 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Area total: 56,785 sq km

land: 54,385 sq km

water: 2,400 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than West Virginia
Background French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967 and maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and fire from international organizations for human rights abuses, Togo is finally being re-welcomed into the international community.
Birth rate 36.83 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $478.1 million

expenditures: $554.1 million (2007 est.)
Capital name: Lome

geographic coordinates: 6 08 N, 1 13 E

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Coastline 56 km
Constitution multiparty draft constitution approved by High Council of the Republic 1 July 1992, adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992
Country name conventional long form: Togolese Republic

conventional short form: Togo

local long form: Republique togolaise

local short form: none

former: French Togoland
Death rate 9.65 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $2 billion (2005)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador David B. DUNN

embassy: 4332 Blvd. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Cite OUA, Lome

mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome

telephone: [228] 261-5470

FAX: [228] 261-5501
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Lorempo LANDJERGUE

chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212

FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
Disputes - international in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; in 2006 14,000 Togolese refugees remain in Benin and Ghana out of the 40,000 who fled there in 2005
Economic aid - recipient ODA, $86.71 million (2005 est.)
Economy - overview This small, sub-Saharan economy is heavily dependent on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is the world's fourth-largest producer of phosphate. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors. Togo is working with donors to write a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) that could eventually lead to a debt reduction plan. Economic growth remains marginal due to declining cotton production, underinvestment in phosphate mining, and strained relations with donors.
Electricity - consumption 576 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 486 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by Ghana (2005)
Electricity - production 176 million kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
Environment - current issues deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 482.71 (2007), 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005); note - Gnassingbe EYADEMA died on 5 February 2005 and was succeeded by his son, Faure GNASSINGBE, with the support of the military following international condemnation for the unconstitutional move he then stepped aside pending elections, and Abass BONFOH served as interim president; Faure GNASSINGBE later won popular elections in April 2005

head of government: Prime Minister Komlan MALLY (since 3 December 2007)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held by 2010); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Faure GNASSINGBE elected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.2%, Emmanuel Akitani BOB 38.3%, Nicolas LAWSON 1%, Harry OLYMPIO 0.5%
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $675 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 0 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
Exports - partners Ghana 16.7%, Burkina Faso 14.4%, Benin 9.1%, Belgium 6.1%, Mali 5.8%, Germany 5.4%, India 4.6%, Netherlands 4.6% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red square in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 40%

industry: 25%

services: 35% (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.5% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 8 00 N, 1 10 E
Geography - note the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem
Imports 486 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by Ghana (2005)
Imports $1.181 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 15,130 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
Imports - partners China 29.8%, UK 10.9%, France 8.9%, Netherlands 6%, Belgium 5.8%, US 4.6%, Estonia 4.2% (2006)
Independence 27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
Industrial production growth rate 3% (2007 est.)
Industries phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages
Infant mortality rate total: 59.12 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 66.56 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 51.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3% (2007 est.)
International organization participation ABEDA, ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land 70 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Labor force 1.302 million (1998)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 65%

industry: 5%

services: 30% (1998 est.)
Land boundaries total: 1,647 km

border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km
Land use arable land: 44.2%

permanent crops: 2.11%

other: 53.69% (2005)
Languages French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
Legal system French-based court system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 14 October 2007 (next to be held in 2012)

election results: percent of vote by party - RPT 39.4%, UFC 37.0%, CAR 8.2%, independents 2.5%, other 12.9%; seats by party - RPT 50, UFC 27, CAR 4
Life expectancy at birth total population: 57.86 years

male: 55.81 years

female: 59.96 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 60.9%

male: 75.4%

female: 46.9% (2003 est.)
Location Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 30 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Merchant marine total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 3,918 GRT/3,852 DWT

by type: cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1 (2007)
Military branches Togolese Armed Forces (FAT): Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie (2005)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.6% (2005 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
Nationality noun: Togolese (singular and plural)

adjective: Togolese
Natural hazards hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Natural resources phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Political parties and leaders Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yawovi AGBOYIBO]; Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA; Democratic Party for Renewal or PDR; Juvento [Monsilia DJATO]; Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP; Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP; Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [Faure GNASSINGBE]; Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]; Union of Forces for a Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 5,701,579

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 32% (1989 est.)
Population growth rate 2.718% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)
Railways total: 568 km

narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Religions Christian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.007 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.949 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.676 male(s)/female

total population: 0.965 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage NA years of age; universal (adult)
Telephone system general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile cellular system

domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 15 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie
Telephones - main lines in use 82,100 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 708,000 (2006)
Television broadcast stations 3 (plus 2 repeaters) (1997)
Terrain gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Total fertility rate 4.9 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways 50 km (seasonally on Mono River depending on rainfall) (2005)
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