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Togo (2002)

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Togo 2002 year

Administrative divisions 5 regions (regions, singular - region); De La Kara, Des Plateaux, Des Savanes, Centrale, Maritime
Age structure 0-14 years: 45.1% (male 1,195,052; female 1,187,014)

15-64 years: 52.4% (male 1,351,345; female 1,420,617)

65 years and over: 2.5% (male 56,270; female 75,203) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
Airports 9 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Area total: 56,785 sq km

land: 54,385 sq km

water: 2,400 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than West Virginia
Background French Togoland became Togo in 1960. General Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, is Africa's longest-serving head of state. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government continues to be dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967. In addition, Togo has come under fire from international organizations for human rights abuses and is plagued by political unrest. Most bilateral and multilateral aid to Togo remains frozen.
Birth rate 36.11 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $232 million

expenditures: $252 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)
Capital Lome
Climate tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Coastline 56 km
Constitution multiparty draft constitution approved by High Council of the Republic 1 July 1992; adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992
Country name conventional long form: Togolese Republic

conventional short form: Togo

local long form: Republique Togolaise

local short form: none

former: French Togoland
Currency Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Death rate 11.3 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $1.5 billion (1999) (1999)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Karl HOFMANN

embassy: Angle Rue Kouenou and Rue 15 Beniglato, Lome

mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome

telephone: [228] 221 29 91 through 221 29 94

FAX: [228] 221 79 52
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Akoussoulelou BODJONA

chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212

FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
Disputes - international Benin accuses Togo of moving boundary markers and stationing troops in its territory
Economic aid - recipient $201.1 million (1995) (1995)
Economy - overview This small sub-Saharan economy is heavily dependent on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings, with cotton being the most significant cash crop despite falling prices on the world market. Political unrest, including private and public sector strikes throughout 1992 and 1993, jeopardized the reform program, shrunk the tax base, and disrupted vital economic activity. The 12 January 1994 devaluation of the XOF currency by 50% provided an important impetus to renewed structural adjustment. In the industrial sector, phosphate mining is by far the most important activity. Togo is the world's fourth largest producer, and geological advantages keep production costs low. The recently privatized mining operation, Office Togolais des Phosphates (OTP), is slowly recovering from a steep fall in prices in the early 1990's, but continues to face the challenge of tough foreign competition, exacerbated by weakening demand. Togo serves as a regional commercial and trade center. It continues to expand its duty-free export-processing zone (EPZ), launched in 1989, which has attracted enterprises from France, Italy, Scandinavia, the US, India, and China and created jobs for Togolese nationals. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has stalled. Progress depends on following through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress towards legislative elections, and possible downsizing of the military, on which the regime has depended to stay in place. Lack of large-scale foreign aid, deterioration of the financial sector, energy shortages, and depressed commodity prices continue to constrain economic growth. The takeover of the national power company by a Franco-Canadian consortium in 2000 should ease the energy crisis.
Electricity - consumption 525.21 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 435 million kWh

note: electricity supplied by Ghana (2000)
Electricity - production 97 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 98%

hydro: 2%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
Environment - current issues deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups native African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 741.79 (January 2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1 January 1999, the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro
Executive branch chief of state: President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA (since 14 April 1967)

head of government: Prime Minister Koffi SAMA (since 29 June 2002)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 21 June 1998 (next to be held June 2003); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Gnassingbe EYADEMA reelected president; percent of vote - Gnassingbe EYADEMA 52.13%, Gilchrist OLYMPIO 34.12%, other 13.75%
Exports 0 kWh (2000)
Exports $306 million f.o.b. (2001)
Exports - commodities cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
Exports - partners Benin 12%, Nigeria 9%, Belgium 5%, Ghana 4% (2000)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red square in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
GDP purchasing power parity - $7.6 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 42%

industry: 21%

services: 37% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,500 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.2% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 8 00 N, 1 10 E
Geography - note the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
Highways total: 7,520 km

paved: 2,376 km

unpaved: 5,144 km (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem
Imports 435 million kWh

note: electricity supplied by Ghana (2000)
Imports $420 million f.o.b. (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
Imports - partners Ghana 26%, France 11%, China 7%, Cote d'Ivoire 7% (2000)
Independence 27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement; handicrafts, textiles, beverages
Infant mortality rate 69.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.3% (2001 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, MIPONUH, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 3 (2001)
Irrigated land 70 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Labor force 1.74 million (1996) (1996)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 65%, industry 5%, services 30% (1998 est.)
Land boundaries total: 1,647 km

border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km
Land use arable land: 41.37%

permanent crops: 1.84%

other: 56.79% (1998 est.)
Languages French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
Legal system French-based court system
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 27 October 2002 (next NA 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RPT 72, RSD 3, UDPS 2, Juvento 2, MOCEP 1, independents 1

note: two opposition parties boycotted the election, the Union of the Forces for Change, and the Action Committee for Renewal
Life expectancy at birth total population: 54.02 years

male: 52.03 years

female: 56.07 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 51.7%

male: 67%

female: 37% (1995 est.)
Location Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Map references Africa
Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 30 NM
Merchant marine total: 1 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,603 GRT/2,800 DWT

ships by type: specialized tanker 1

note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Greece 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie
Military expenditures - dollar figure $21.9 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.8% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,220,758 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 640,280 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
Nationality noun: Togolese (singular and plural)

adjective: Togolese
Natural hazards hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Natural resources phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Political parties and leaders Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yawovi AGBOYIBO]; Coordination des Forces Nouvelles or CFN [Joseph KOFFIGOH]; Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA [Leopold GNININVI]; Party for Democracy and Renewal or PDR [Zarifou AYEVA]; Patriotic Pan-African Convergence or CPP [Edem KODJO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA]; Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO (in exile), Jean Pierre FABRE, general secretary in Togo]; Union of Independent Liberals or ULI [Jacques AMOUZOU]

note: Rally of the Togolese People or RPT, led by President EYADEMA, was the only party until the formation of multiple parties was legalized 12 April 1991
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 5,285,501

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 32% (1989 est.)
Population growth rate 2.48% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Kpeme, Lome
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)
Radios 940,000 (1997)
Railways total: 525 km

narrow gauge: 525 km 1.000-m gauge (2001)
Religions indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 29%, Muslim 20%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage NA years of age; universal adult
Telephone system general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile cellular system

domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; cellular system has capacity of 10,000 telephones

international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Symphonie
Telephones - main lines in use 25,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 2,995 (1997)
Television broadcast stations 3 (plus two repeaters) (1997)
Terrain gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Total fertility rate 5.14 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways 50 km (Mono river)
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