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Togo (2006)

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Administrative divisions 5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes
Age structure 0-14 years: 42.3% (male 1,177,141/female 1,169,321)

15-64 years: 55.1% (male 1,485,621/female 1,570,117)

65 years and over: 2.6% (male 59,870/female 86,632) (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
Airports 9 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways total: 2

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 2 (2006)
Area total: 56,785 sq km

land: 54,385 sq km

water: 2,400 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than West Virginia
Background French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, continued to rule well into the 21st century. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government continued to be dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967. Togo has come under fire from international organizations for human rights abuses and is plagued by political unrest. While most bilateral and multilateral aid to Togo remains frozen, the EU initiated a partial resumption of cooperation and development aid to Togo in late 2004 based upon commitments by Togo to expand opportunities for political opposition and liberalize portions of the economy. Upon his death in February 2005, President EYADEMA was succeeded by his son Faure GNASSINGBE. The succession, supported by the military and in contravention of the nation's constitution, was challenged by popular protest and a threat of sanctions from regional leaders. GNASSINGBE succumbed to pressure and in April 2005 held elections that legitimized his succession.
Birth rate 37.01 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budget revenues: $251.3 million

expenditures: $292.9 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Capital name: Lome

geographic coordinates: 6 08 N, 1 13 E

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Coastline 56 km
Constitution multiparty draft constitution approved by High Council of the Republic 1 July 1992, adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992
Country name conventional long form: Togolese Republic

conventional short form: Togo

local long form: Republique togolaise

local short form: none

former: French Togoland
Death rate 9.83 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Debt - external $2 billion (2005)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Gregory ENGLE

embassy: Angle Rue Kouenou and Rue 15 Beniglato, Lome

mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome

telephone: [228] 221 29 91 through 221 29 94

FAX: [228] 221 79 52
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Akoussoulelou BODJONA

chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212

FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
Disputes - international in 2001 Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary
Economic aid - recipient ODA, $80 million (2000 est.)
Economy - overview This small, sub-Saharan economy is heavily dependent on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings, with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is the world's fourth-largest producer of phosphate. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Progress depends on follow-through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors. Togo is working with donors to write a PRGF that could eventually lead to a debt reduction plan.
Electricity - consumption 654.3 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports 500 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by Ghana (2003)
Electricity - production 165.9 million kWh (2003)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
Environment - current issues deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
Exchange rates Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002), 733.04 (2001)
Executive branch chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 6 February 2005); note - Gnassingbe EYADEMA died on 5 February 2005 and was succeeded by his son, Faure GNASSINGBE; popular elections in April 2005 validated the succession

head of government: Prime Minister Yawovi AGBOYIBO (since 16 September 2006)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held NA); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Faure GNASSINGBE elected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.2%, Emmanuel Akitani BOB 38.3%, Nicolas LAWSON 1%, Harry OLYMPIO 0.5%
Exports 0 kWh (2003)
Exports $768 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
Exports - partners Ghana 21.1%, Burkina Faso 18.2%, Benin 11.5%, Mali 7.3%, India 5.8%, Nigeria 4% (2005)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red square in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 39.5%

industry: 20.4%

services: 40.1% (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 8 00 N, 1 10 E
Geography - note the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem
Imports 500 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by Ghana (2003)
Imports $1.047 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
Imports - partners France 17.8%, China 13.3%, Cote d'Ivoire 6.5%, Italy 4.5%, Spain 4.3% (2005)
Independence 27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages
Infant mortality rate total: 60.63 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 68.17 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 52.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 6% (2005 est.)
International organization participation ABEDA, ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OIF, ONUB, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Irrigated land 70 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Labor force 1.302 million (1998)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 65%

industry: 5%

services: 30% (1998 est.)
Land boundaries total: 1,647 km

border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km
Land use arable land: 44.2%

permanent crops: 2.11%

other: 53.69% (2005)
Languages French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
Legal system French-based court system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 27 October 2002 (next to be held in 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RPT 72, RSDD 3, UDPS 2, Juvento 2, MOCEP 1, independents 1

note: two opposition parties boycotted the election, the Union of the Forces for Change and the Action Committee for Renewal
Life expectancy at birth total population: 57.42 years

male: 55.41 years

female: 59.49 years (2006 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 60.9%

male: 75.4%

female: 46.9% (2003 est.)
Location Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 30 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Merchant marine total: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 3,918 GRT/3,852 DWT

by type: cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1 (2006)
Military branches Togolese Armed Forces (FAT): Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie (2005)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $29.98 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.6% (2005 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
Nationality noun: Togolese (singular and plural)

adjective: Togolese
Natural hazards hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Natural resources phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Political parties and leaders Juvento [Monsilia DJATO]; Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP; Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [Faure GNASSINGBE]; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 5,548,702

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Population below poverty line 32% (1989 est.)
Population growth rate 2.72% (2006 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)
Railways total: 568 km

narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2005)
Religions indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 29%, Muslim 20%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female

total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Suffrage NA years of age; universal adult
Telephone system general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile cellular system

domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system

international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Symphonie
Telephones - main lines in use 58,600 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 443,600 (2005)
Television broadcast stations 3 (plus two repeaters) (1997)
Terrain gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Total fertility rate 4.96 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways 50 km (seasonally on Mono River depending on rainfall) (2005)
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