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Romania (2008)

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Romania 2008 year

Administrative divisions 41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea
Age structure 0-14 years: 15.6% (male 1,787,334/female 1,696,270)

15-64 years: 69.6% (male 7,721,160/female 7,793,063)

65 years and over: 14.7% (male 1,344,673/female 1,933,556) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
Airports 61 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 25

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 12

914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 36

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 22 (2007)
Area total: 237,500 sq km

land: 230,340 sq km

water: 7,160 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Oregon
Background The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they united in 1859 and a few years later adopted the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a Communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former Communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
Birth rate 10.67 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $52.96 billion

expenditures: $56.85 billion (2007 est.)
Capital name: Bucharest

geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Climate temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Coastline 225 km
Constitution 8 December 1991; revision effective 29 October 2003
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Romania

local long form: none

local short form: Romania
Death rate 11.81 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $85.86 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Nicholas F. TAUBMAN

embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest

mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)

telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300

FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Adrian Cosmin VIERITA

chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852

FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Disputes - international the ICJ gave Ukraine until December 2006 to reply, and Romania until June 2007 to issue a rejoinder, in their dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania also opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea
Economic aid - recipient $914.3 million (2004)
Economy - overview Romania, which joined the European Union on 1 January 2007, began the transition from Communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. The country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession thanks to strong demand in EU export markets. Domestic consumption and investment have fueled strong GDP growth in recent years, but have led to large current account imbalances. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and address Romania's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to handicap its business environment. Inflation rose in 2007 for the first time in eight years, driven in part by the depreciation of the currency, rising energy costs, a nation-wide drought affecting food prices, and a relaxation of fiscal discipline. Romania hopes to adopt the Euro by 2014.
Electricity - consumption 48.17 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 5.224 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 2.321 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 56.91 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
Environment - current issues soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4% (2002 census)
Exchange rates lei per US dollar - 2.43 (2007), 2.809 (2006), 3 (2005), 3 (2004), 3 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Traian BASESCU (since 20 December 2004); note - President Traian BASESCU was suspended by vote of parliament on 19 April 2007, but resumed his duties on 23 May 2007 after a popular referendum confirmed that his impeachment should not stand

head of government: Prime Minister Calin Popescu-TARICEANU (since 29 December 2004)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 28 November 2004 with runoff between the top two candidates held 12 December 2004 (next to be held in November-December 2009); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the Parliament

election results: percent of vote - Traian BASESCU 51.23%, Adrian NASTASE 48.77%
Exports 5.224 billion kWh (2005)
Exports $39.62 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 92,510 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, metals and metal products, machinery and equipment, minerals and fuels, chemicals, agricultural products
Exports - partners Italy 17.9%, Germany 15.7%, Turkey 7.7%, France 7.5%, Hungary 4.9%, UK 4.7% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flag of Chad, also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 7.9%

industry: 35.6%

services: 56.5% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.9% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 46 00 N, 25 00 E
Geography - note controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine
Heliports 2 (2007)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.3%

highest 10%: 24.4% (2003)
Illicit drugs major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos
Imports 2.321 billion kWh (2005)
Imports $63.16 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 6.234 billion cu m (2005)
Imports 181,100 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, fuels and minerals, chemicals, textile and products, metals, agricultural products
Imports - partners Germany 15.2%, Italy 14.5%, Russia 7.8%, France 6.5%, Turkey 4.9%, China 4.3% (2006)
Independence 9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
Industrial production growth rate 8% (2007 est.)
Industries electric machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining
Infant mortality rate total: 24.6 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 27.71 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 21.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4.6% (2007 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU (new member), FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Irrigated land 30,770 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Justice (comprised of 11 judges appointed for three-year terms by the president in consultation with the Superior Council of Magistrates, which is comprised of the minister of justice, the prosecutor general, two civil society representatives appointed by the Senate, and 14 judges and prosecutors elected by their peers); a separate body, the Constitutional Court, validates elections and makes decisions regarding the constitutionality of laws, treaties, ordinances, and internal rules of the Parliament; it is comprised of nine members serving nine-year terms, with three members each appointed by the president, the Senate, and the Chamber of Deputies
Labor force 9.35 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 31.6%

industry: 30.7%

services: 37.7% (2004)
Land boundaries total: 2,508 km

border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km
Land use arable land: 39.49%

permanent crops: 1.92%

other: 58.59% (2005)
Languages Romanian 91% (official), Hungarian 6.7%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 1.2%
Legal system based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (137 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (332 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 28 November 2004 (next expected to be held in November 2008); Chamber of Deputies - last held 28 November 2004 (next expected to be held November 2008)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by alliance/party - PSD-PUR 37.1%, PNL-PD 31.8%, PRM 13.6%, UDMR 6.2%, other 11.3%; seats by party - PSD 44, PNL 30, PD 20, PRM 20, PC 11, UDMR 10, independents 2; seats by party as of February 2008 - PSD 44, PDL 27, PNL 24, PRM 16, PC 10, UDMR 10, independents 6; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by alliance/party - PSD-PUR 36.8%, PNL-PD 31.5%, PRM 13%, UDMR 6.2%, other 12.5%; seats by party - PSD 111, PNL 66, PD 45, PRM 34, UDMR 22, PC 20, ex-PRM (Ciontu Group) 12, PIN (GUSA Group) 3, independent 1, ethnic minorities 18; seats by party as of February 2008 - PSD 104, PDL 73, PNL 56, PRM 25, UDMR 22, PC 16, independents 18, ethnic minorities 18
Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.91 years

male: 68.41 years

female: 75.62 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97.3%

male: 98.4%

female: 96.3% (2002 census)
Location Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Map references Europe
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Merchant marine total: 19 ships (1000 GRT or over) 146,307 GRT/165,548 DWT

by type: cargo 13, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1

registered in other countries: 50 (Cambodia 1, Georgia 15, North Korea 6, Malta 10, Marshall Islands 1, Panama 8, Sierra Leone 2, St Kitts and Nevis 1, St Vincent and The Grenadines 1, Syria 4, Tuvalu 1, unknown 4) (2007)
Military branches Land Forces, Naval Forces, Romanian Air Force (Fortele Aeriene Romane, FAR), Special Operations (2008)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.9% (2007 est.)
National holiday Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
Nationality noun: Romanian(s)

adjective: Romanian
Natural hazards earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
Natural resources petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Net migration rate -0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines gas 3,674 km; oil 2,424 km (2007)
Political parties and leaders Conservative Party or PC [Daniela POPA] (formerly Humanist Party or PUR); Democratic Liberal Party or PDL [Emil BOC]; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Calin POPESCU-TARICEANU]; Romania Mare Party (Greater Romania Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Mircea Dan GEOANA] (formerly Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR)
Political pressure groups and leaders various human rights and professional associations
Population 22,276,056 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 25% (2005 est.)
Population growth rate -0.127% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations 698 (frequency type NA) (2006)
Railways total: 11,385 km

broad gauge: 60 km 1.524-m gauge

standard gauge: 10,898 km 1.435-m gauge (3,888 km electrified)

narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2006)
Religions Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 86.8%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformate and Pentecostal) 7.5%, Roman Catholic 4.7%, other (mostly Muslim) and unspecified 0.9%, none 0.1% (2002 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.054 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.991 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.695 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: rapidly improving domestic and international service, especially in wireless telephony

domestic: more than 90 percent of telephone network is automatic; liberalization in 2003 is transforming telecommunications; fixed-line teledensity is roughly 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is approaching 80 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber Optic System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turkey; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2005)
Telephones - main lines in use 4.231 million (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 17.4 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 623 (plus 200 repeaters) (2006)
Terrain central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Total fertility rate 1.38 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 4.5% (2007 est.)
Waterways 1,731 km

note: includes 1,075 km on Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals (2006)
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