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Romania (2002)

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Romania 2002 year

Administrative divisions 41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea
Age structure 0-14 years: 17.4% (male 1,992,505; female 1,898,122)

15-64 years: 68.8% (male 7,618,801; female 7,726,300)

65 years and over: 13.8% (male 1,274,881; female 1,807,121) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
Airports 61 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 25

over 3,047 m: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 37

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 12

under 914 m: 23 (2002)
Area total: 237,500 sq km

land: 230,340 sq km

water: 7,160 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Oregon
Background Soviet occupation following World War II led to the formation of a Communist "peoples republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power by a fractious coalition of center-right parties. Currently, the Social Democratic Party forms a nominally minority government, which governs with the support of the opposition Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania. Much economic restructuring remains to be carried out before Romania can achieve its hope of joining the European Union.
Birth rate 10.81 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $11.7 billion

expenditures: $12.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
Capital Bucharest
Climate temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Coastline 225 km
Constitution 8 December 1991
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Romania

local long form: none

local short form: Romania
Currency leu (ROL)
Death rate 12.27 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $11.6 billion (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Michael GUEST

embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest

mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)

telephone: [40] (21) 210-4042

FAX: [40] (21) 210-0395

branch office(s): Cluj-Napoca
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Sorin Dumitru DUCARU

chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851

FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748

consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
Disputes - international Romania and Ukraine have yet to resolve claims over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy (Snake) Island and delimitation of Black Sea maritime boundary, despite 1997 bilateral treaty to find a solution in two years and numerous talks; because of a shift in the Danube course since the last correction of the boundary in 1920, a joint Bulgarian-Romanian team will recommend sovereignty changes to several islands and redefine the boundary
Economy - overview Romania, one of the poorest countries of Central and Eastern Europe, began the transition from Communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Over the past decade economic restructuring has lagged behind most other countries in the region. Consequently, living standards have continued to fall - real wages are down perhaps 40%. The country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession thanks to strong demand in EU export markets, and despite the global slowdown in 2001, strong domestic activity in construction, agriculture, and consumption led to 4.8% growth. A standby agreement with the IMF - covering the period October 2001 to March 2003 - provides a key opportunity for vigorous privatization, regulatory reform, deficit reduction, and the curbing of inflation. The government in the past has not been able to fully implement IMF agreements; its degree of success in this case will affect prospects for joining the EU.
Electricity - consumption 45.677 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 1.4 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 775 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 49.787 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 53%

hydro: 37%

nuclear: 10%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Black Sea 0 m

highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
Environment - current issues soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol
Ethnic groups Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4% (2002)
Exchange rates lei per US dollar - 35,052.0 (January 2002), 29,060.8 (2001), 21,708.7 (2000), 15,332.8 (1999), 8,875.6 (1998), 7,167.9 (1997); note - lei is the plural form of leu
Executive branch chief of state: President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 December 2000)

head of government: Prime Minister Adrian NASTASE (since 29 December 2000)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 26 November 2000, with runoff between the top two candidates held 10 December 2000 (next to be held NA November/December 2004); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: percent of vote - Ion ILIESCU 66.84%, Corneliu Vadim TUDOR 33.16%
Exports 1.4 billion kWh (2000)
Exports $11.5 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities textiles and footwear 26%, metals and metal products 15%, machinery and equipment 11%, minerals and fuels 6% (1999)
Exports - partners Italy 22%, Germany 16%, France 7%, Turkey 6%, US (2000)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flag of Chad, also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova
GDP purchasing power parity - $152.7 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 15%

industry: 30%

services: 55% (2000)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $6,800 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.8% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 46 00 N, 25 00 E
Geography - note controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine
Heliports 1 (2002)
Highways total: 153,359 km

paved: 103,671 km (including 133 km of expressways)

unpaved: 49,688 km (1998 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 4%

highest 10%: 23% (1994)
Illicit drugs major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe
Imports 775 million kWh (2000)
Imports $14.4 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment 23%, fuels and minerals 12%, chemicals 9%, textile and products 19% (1999)
Imports - partners Italy 19%, Germany 15%, Russia 9%, France 6% (2000)
Independence 9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from Turkey; independence recognized 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin; kingdom proclaimed 26 March 1881; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)
Industrial production growth rate 6.5% (2001)
Industries textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining
Infant mortality rate 18.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 34.5% (2001 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MONUC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 38 (2000)
Irrigated land 28,800 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Justice (judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistrates)
Labor force 9.9 million (1999 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 40%, industry 25%, services 35% (1998)
Land boundaries total: 2,508 km

border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia and Montenegro 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km
Land use arable land: 40.57%

permanent crops: 2.4%

other: 57.03% (1998 est.)
Languages Romanian, Hungarian, German
Legal system former mixture of civil law system and communist legal theory; is now based on the constitution of France's Fifth Republic
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (140 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Adunarea Deputatilor (345 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 26 November 2000 (next to be held in the fall of 2004); Chamber of Deputies - last held 26 November 2000 (next to be held in the fall of 2004)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PDSR 37.1%, PRM 21.0%, PD 7.6%, PNL 7.5%, UDMR 6.9%; seats by party - PDSR 65, PRM 37, PD 13, PNL 13, UDMR 12; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PDSR 36.6%, PRM 19.5%, PD 7.0%, PNL, 6.9%, UDMR 6.8%; seats by party - PDSR 155, PRM 84, PD 31, PNL 30, UDMR 27, ethnic minorities 18
Life expectancy at birth total population: 70.39 years

male: 66.62 years

female: 74.39 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 97%

male: 98%

female: 95% (1992 est.)
Location Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Map references Europe
Maritime claims contiguous zone: 24 NM

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone: 200 NM

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 70 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 561,470 GRT/754,836 DWT

ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 47, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4, railcar carrier 2, roll on/roll off 4

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Greece 1, Italy 5 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces (AMR), Paramilitary Forces, Civil Defense, Border Guards
Military expenditures - dollar figure $985 million (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.47% (2002)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 5,906,601 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 4,970,496 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 20 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 179,951 (2002 est.)
National holiday Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
Nationality noun: Romanian(s)

adjective: Romanian
Natural hazards earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
Natural resources petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Net migration rate -0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 2,800 km; petroleum products 1,429 km; natural gas 6,400 km (1992)
Political parties and leaders Democratic Party or PD [Traian BASESCU]; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Valeriu STOICA]; Romania Mare Party (Greater Romanian Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Adrian NASTASE], formerly known as the Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR
Political pressure groups and leaders various human rights and professional associations
Population 22,317,730 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 45% (2000)
Population growth rate -0.21% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Braila, Constanta, Galati, Mangalia, Sulina, Tulcea
Radio broadcast stations AM 40, FM 202, shortwave 3 (1998)
Radios 7.2 million (1997)
Railways total: 11,385 km (3,888 km electrified)

standard gauge: 10,898 km 1.435-m gauge

broad gage: 60 km 1.524-m gauge

narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2001)
Religions Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 87%, Protestant 6.8%, Catholic 5.6%, other (mostly Muslim) 0.4%, unaffiliated 0.2% (2002)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female

total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: poor domestic service, but improving

domestic: 90% of telephone network is automatic; trunk network is mostly microwave radio relay, with some fiber-optic cable; about one-third of exchange capacity is digital; roughly 3,300 villages have no service

international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; new digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest; note - Romania is an active participant in several international telecommunication network projects (1999)
Telephones - main lines in use 3.777 million (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 645,500 (1999)
Television broadcast stations 48 (plus 392 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Total fertility rate 1.35 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 9.1% (2001)
Waterways 1,724 km (1984)
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