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Romania (2001)

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Romania 2001 year

Administrative divisions 40 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea
Age structure 0-14 years:
17.95% (male 2,054,323; female 1,959,196)

15-64 years:
68.51% (male 7,605,751; female 7,715,434)

65 years and over:
13.54% (male 1,255,880; female 1,773,438) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
Airports 62 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:
12 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
23 (2000 est.)
Area total:
237,500 sq km

230,340 sq km

7,160 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Oregon
Background Soviet occupation following World War II led to the formation of a communist "peoples republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of President Nicolae CEAUSESCU became increasingly draconian through the 1980s. He was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Much economic restructuring remains to be carried out before Romania can achieve its hope of joining the EU.
Birth rate 10.8 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$11.7 billion

$12.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
Capital Bucharest
Climate temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Coastline 225 km
Constitution 8 December 1991
Country name conventional long form:

conventional short form:

local long form:

local short form:
Currency leu (ROL)
Death rate 12.28 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $9.3 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador James C. ROSAPEPE

Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest

mailing address:
American Embassy Bucharest, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)

[40] (1) 210 40 42

[40] (1) 210 03 95

branch office(s):
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador (vacant)

1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851

[1] (202) 232-4748

consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
Disputes - international none
Economy - overview Romania, one of the poorest countries in Central and Eastern Europe, began the transition from communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Over the past decade economic restructuring has lagged behind most other countries in the region. Consequently, living standards have continued to fall - real wages are down over 40%. Corruption too has worsened. The EU ranks Romania last among enlargement candidates, and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) rates Romania's transition progress the region's worst. The country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession thanks to strong demand in EU export markets. A new government elected in November 2000 promises to promote economic reform. Bucharest hopes to receive financial and technical assistance from international financial institutions and Western governments; negotiations over a new IMF standby agreement are to begin early in 2001. If reform stalls, Romania's ability to borrow from both public and private sources could quickly dry up, leading to another financial crisis.
Electricity - consumption 44.768 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 1.935 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 1.1 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 49.036 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0.02% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Black Sea 0 m

highest point:
Moldoveanu 2,544 m
Environment - current issues soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Environment - international agreements party to:
Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 7.1%, Roma 1.8%, German 0.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, other 0.8% (1992)
Exchange rates lei per US dollar - 26,243.0 (January 2001), 21,708.7 (2000), 15,332.8 (1999), 8,875.6 (1998), 7,167.9 (1997), 3,084.2 (1996); note - lei is the plural form of leu
Executive branch chief of state:
President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 December 2000)

head of government:
Prime Minister Adrian NASTASE (since 29 December 2000)

Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister

president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 26 November 2000, with runoff between the top two candidates held 10 December 2000 (next to be held NA November/December 2004); prime minister appointed by the president

election results:
percent of vote - Ion ILIESCU 66.84%, Corneliu Vadim TUDOR 33.16%
Exports 1.935 billion kWh (1999)
Exports $11.2 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities textiles and footwear 26%, metals and metal products 15%, machinery and equipment 11%, minerals and fuels 6% (1999)
Exports - partners Italy 23%, Germany 18%, France 6%, Turkey 5%, US (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flag of Chad, also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova
GDP purchasing power parity - $132.5 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


53.5% (2000)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $5,900 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.2% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 46 00 N, 25 00 E
Geography - note controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine
Heliports 1 (2000 est.)
Highways total:
153,359 km

103,671 km (including 133 km of expressways)

49,688 km (1998 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
20.2% (1992)
Illicit drugs important transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe
Imports 1.1 billion kWh (1999)
Imports $11.9 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment 23%, fuels and minerals 12%, chemicals 9%, textile and products 19% (1999)
Imports - partners Italy 20%, Germany 19%, France 7%, Russia 6% (1999)
Independence 1881 (from Turkey; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)
Industrial production growth rate 8% (2000)
Industries textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining
Infant mortality rate 19.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 45.7% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MONUC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 38 (2000)
Irrigated land 31,020 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Justice (judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistrates)
Labor force 9.9 million (1999 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 40%, industry 25%, services 35% (1998)
Land boundaries total:
2,508 km

border countries:
Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Yugoslavia 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

6% (1993 est.)
Languages Romanian, Hungarian, German
Legal system former mixture of civil law system and communist legal theory; is now based on the constitution of France's Fifth Republic
Legislative branch bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (140 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Adunarea Deputatilor (345 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)

Senate - last held 26 November 2000 (next to be held in the fall of 2004); Chamber of Deputies - last held 26 November 2000 (next to be held in the fall of 2004)

election results:
Senate - percent of vote by party - PDSR 37.1%, PRM 21.0%, PD 7.6%, PNL 7.5%, UDMR 6.9%; seats by party - PDSR 65, PRM 37, PD 13, PNL 13, UDMR 12; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PDSR 36.6%, PRM 19.5%, PD 7.0%, PNL, 6.9%, UDMR 6.8%; seats by party - PDSR 155, PRM 84, PD 31, PNL 30, UDMR 27, ethnic minorities 18
Life expectancy at birth total population:
70.16 years

66.36 years

74.19 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


95% (1992 est.)
Location Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Map references Europe
Maritime claims contiguous zone:
24 NM

continental shelf:
200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

exclusive economic zone:
200 NM

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
95 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 695,227 GRT/931,598 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 10, cargo 71, container 1, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4, railcar carrier 2, roll on/roll off 4, specialized tanker 1 (2000 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Paramilitary Forces, Civil Defense
Military expenditures - dollar figure $720 million (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2.2% (FY00)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
5,899,536 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
4,962,807 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 20 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
179,951 (2001 est.)
National holiday Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards earthquakes most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
Natural resources petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Net migration rate -0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 2,800 km; petroleum products 1,429 km; natural gas 6,400 km (1992)
Political parties and leaders Democratic Party or PD [Petre ROMAN]; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Mircea IONESCU-QUINTUS]; Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR [Adrian NASTASE]; Romania Mare Party (Greater Romanian Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]; The Democratic Convention or CDR [Ion DIACONESCU]
Political pressure groups and leaders various human rights and professional associations
Population 22,364,022 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 44.5% (2000)
Population growth rate -0.21% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Braila, Constanta, Galati, Mangalia, Sulina, Tulcea
Radio broadcast stations AM 40, FM 202, shortwave 3 (1998)
Radios 7.2 million (1997)
Railways total:
11,385 km (3,888 km electrified)

standard gauge:
10,898 km

narrow gauge:
487 km (1996)
Religions Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 3%, Uniate Catholic 3%, Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 18%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.71 male(s)/female

total population:
0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
poor domestic service, but improving

90% of telephone network is automatic; trunk network is mostly microwave radio relay, with some fiber-optic cable; about one-third of exchange capacity is digital; roughly 3,300 villages have no service

satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; new digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest; note - Romania is an active participant in several international telecommunication network projects (1999)
Telephones - main lines in use 3.777 million (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 645,500 (1999)
Television broadcast stations 48 (plus 392 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Total fertility rate 1.35 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 11.5% (1999)
Waterways 1,724 km (1984)
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