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Estonia (2008)

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Estonia 2008 roku

 Estonia
Podzial administracyjny 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond): Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuressaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru)


note: counties have the administrative center name following w parentheses
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 15% (male 101,430/female 95,658)


15-64 years: 67.5% (male 423,664/female 464,813)


65 years and over: 17.5% (male 76,344/female 154,003) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish
Lotniska 19 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 12


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 7


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 7


over 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 2


914 to 1,523 m: 1


under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Terytorium total: 45,226 sq km


land: 43,211 sq km


water: 2,015 sq km


note: includes 1,520 islands w the Baltic Sea
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Tlo historyczne After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Rosjan rule, Estonia attained independence w 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR w 1940 - an action never recognized by the US - it regained its freedom w 1991, z the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Rosjan troops left w 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties z Western Europe. It joined both NATO and the EU w the spring of 2004.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 10.17 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $7.671 billion


expenditures: $7.015 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Tallinn


geographic coordinates: 59 26 N, 24 43 E


time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Linia brzegowa 3,794 km
Konstytucja adopted 28 czerwiec 1992
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Estonia


conventional short form: Estonia


local long form: Eesti Vabariik


local short form: Eesti


former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Wspolczynnik zgonow 13.3 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $20.24 billion (30 czerwiec 2007)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Stanley Davis PHILLIPS


embassy: Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn


mailing address: use embassy street address


telephone: [372] 668-8100


FAX: [372] 668-8134
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Vaino REINART


chancery: 2131 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101


FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108


consulate(s) general: New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Rosja recalled its signature to the 1996 technical border agreement z Estonia w 2005, rather than concede to Estonia's appending prepared a unilateral declaration referencing Soviet occupation and territorial losses; Rosja demands better accommodation of Rosjan-speaking population w Estonia; Estonian citizen groups continue to press dla realignment of the boundary based on the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty that would bring the now divided ethnic Setu people and parts of the Narva region within Estonia; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Estonia must implement the strict Schengen border rules z Rosja
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $135.5 million (2004)
Ekonomia Estonia, a 2004 Unia Europejska entrant, has a modern market-based economy and one of the highest per capita income levels w Central Europe. The economy benefits from strong electronics and telecommunications sectors and strong trade ties z Finlandia, Szwecja, and Niemcy. The current government has pursued relatively sound fiscal policies, resulting w balanced budgets and low public debt. In 2007, however, a large current account deficit and rising inflation put pressure on Estonia's currency, which is pegged to the euro, highlighting the need dla growth w export-generating industries.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 6.888 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 1.953 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 345 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 9.599 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m


highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air polluted z sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants w northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 80% less than w 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies w 2000 was one twentieth the level of 1980; w connection z the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which w agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted w certain locations
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Estonian 67.9%, Rosjan 25.6%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Bialorusian 1.3%, Finn 0.9%, other 2.2% (2000 census)
Kurs waluty krooni per US dollar - 11.535 (2007), 12.473 (2006), 12.584 (2005), 12.596 (2004), 13.856 (2003)


note: the krooni is pegged to the euro
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Toomas Hendrik ILVES (since 9 pazdziernik 2006)


head of government: Prime Minister Andrus ANSIP (since 12 kwiecien 2005)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament


elections: president elected by Parliament dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); if a candidate does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting w the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates z the largest percentage of votes; election last held 23 wrzesien 2006 (next to be held w the fall of 2011); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament


election results: Toomas Hendrik ILVES elected president on 23 wrzesien 2006 by a 345-member electoral assembly; ILVES received 174 votes to incumbent Arnold RUUTEL's 162; remaining 9 ballots left blank or invalid
Eksport 1.953 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $11.31 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 3,958 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary machinery and equipment 33%, wood and paper 15%, textiles 14%, food products 8%, furniture 7%, metals, chemical products (2001)
Eksport - partnerzy Finlandia 18.2%, Szwecja 12.2%, Lotwa 9.1%, Rosja 7.9%, US 6.6%, Niemcy 5%, Litwa 4.8%, Gibraltar 4.5% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet w maj 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 2.9%


industry: 28.9%


services: 68.2% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 7.3% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 59 00 N, 26 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.5%


highest 10%: 27.6% (2003)
Narkotyki growing producer of synthetic drugs; increasingly important transshipment zone dla cannabis, cocaine, opiates, and synthetic drugs since joining the Unia Europejska and the Schengen Accord; potential money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking is a concern, as is possible use of the gambling sector to launder funds; major use of opiates and ecstasy
Import 345 million kWh (2005)
Import $14.71 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 1.458 billion cu m (2005)
Import 54,000 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery and equipment 33.5%, chemical products 11.6%, textiles 10.3%, foodstuffs 9.4%, transportation equipment 8.9% (2001)
Import - partnerzy Finlandia 18.4%, Rosja 12.9%, Niemcy 12.3%, Szwecja 9.2%, Litwa 6.4%, Lotwa 5.8% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 20 sierpien 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 6.1% (2007 est.)
Przemysl engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textile; information technology, telecommunications
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 7.59 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 8.77 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 6.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 6.3% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNITAR, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 40 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament dla life)
Sila robocza 688,000 (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 11%


industry: 20%


services: 69% (1999 est.)
Granica total: 633 km


border countries: Lotwa 339 km, Rosja 294 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 12.05%


permanent crops: 0.35%


other: 87.6% (2005)
Jezyki Estonian (official) 67.3%, Rosjan 29.7%, other 2.3%, unknown 0.7% (2000 census)
System prawny based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)


elections: last held 4 marzec 2007 (next to be held w marzec 2011)


election results: percent of vote by party - Estonian Reform Party 27.8%, Center Party of Estonia 26.1%, Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica 17.9%, Social Democratic Party 10.6%, Estonian Greens 7.1%, Estonian People's Union 7.1%, other 5%; seats by party - Reform Party 31, Center Party 29, Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica 19, Social Democrats 10, Estonian Greens 6, People's Union 6
Zywotnosc total population: 72.3 years


male: 66.87 years


female: 78.07 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 99.8%


male: 99.8%


female: 99.8% (2000 census)
Lokalizacja Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finlandia, between Lotwa and Rosja
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


exclusive economic zone: limits fixed w coordination z neighboring states
Flota handlowa total: 33 ships (1000 GRT or over) 393,655 GRT/93,245 DWT


by type: cargo 7, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 23, petroleum tanker 2


foreign-owned: 4 (Dania 2, Norwegia 2)


registered w other countries: 67 (Antigua i Barbuda 15, Belize 1, Kambodza 1, Cypr 5, Dominika 8, Lotwa 1, Liberia 1, Malta 7, Norwegia 1, Panama 3, Slowacja 2, St Kitts and Nevis 1, St Vincent and The Grenadines 20, Vanuatu 1) (2007)
Wojsko Estonian Defense Forces: Land Force, Navy, Air Force (Eesti Ohuvagi), Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit, KL) (2008)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 24 luty (1918); note - 24 luty 1918 was the date Estonia declared its independence from Soviet Rosja; 20 sierpien 1991 was the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union
Narodowosc noun: Estonian(s)


adjective: Estonian
Naturalne zagrozenia sometimes flooding occurs w the spring
Surowce naturalne oil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud
Wspolczynnik migracji -3.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 859 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) [Edgar SAVISAAR]; Estonian Greens (Rohelised) [Marek STRANDBERG]; Estonian People's Union (Rahvaliit) [Villu REILJAN]; Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) [Andrus ANSIP]; Estonian United Rosjan People's Party or EUVRP [Yevgeniy TOMBERG]; Social Democratic Party (formerly People's Party Moodukad or Moderates) [Ivari PADAR]; Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica (Isamaa je Res Publica Liit) [Mart LAAR]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Nochnoy Dozor/Night Watch anti-fascist movement (leader Alexander KOROBOV)
Ludnosc 1,315,912 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 5% (2003)
Przyrost naturalny -0.635% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 0, FM 98, shortwave 0 (2001)
Linie kolejowe total: 968 km


broad gauge: 968 km 1.520 m/1.524-m gauge (2006)
Religie Evangelical Lutheran 13.6%, Orthodox 12.8%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 1.4%, unaffiliated 34.1%, other and unspecified 32%, none 6.1% (2000 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.911 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.496 male(s)/female


total population: 0.842 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal dla all Estonian citizens
System telefoniczny general assessment: foreign investment w the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic w the digital mode; Internet services are widely available; schools and libraries are connected to the internet, a large percentage of the population files income-tax returns online, and online voting was used dla the first time w the 2005 local elections


domestic: a wide range of high quality voice, data, and Internet services is available throughout the country


international: country code - 372; fiber-optic cables to Finlandia, Szwecja, Lotwa, and Rosja provide worldwide packet-switched service; 2 international switches are located w Tallinn (2001)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 541,900 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 1.659 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 3 (2001)
Uksztaltowanie terenu marshy, lowlands; flat w the north, hilly w the south
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.41 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 5.2% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 320 km (2006)
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