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Estonia (2008)

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Estonia 2008 year

Administrative divisions 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond): Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuressaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru)

note: counties have the administrative center name following in parentheses
Age structure 0-14 years: 15% (male 101,430/female 95,658)

15-64 years: 67.5% (male 423,664/female 464,813)

65 years and over: 17.5% (male 76,344/female 154,003) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish
Airports 19 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 12

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 7

over 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Area total: 45,226 sq km

land: 43,211 sq km

water: 2,015 sq km

note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
Area - comparative slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Background After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US - it regained its freedom in 1991, with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe. It joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
Birth rate 10.17 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $7.671 billion

expenditures: $7.015 billion (2007 est.)
Capital name: Tallinn

geographic coordinates: 59 26 N, 24 43 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Climate maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Coastline 3,794 km
Constitution adopted 28 June 1992
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Estonia

conventional short form: Estonia

local long form: Eesti Vabariik

local short form: Eesti

former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Death rate 13.3 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $20.24 billion (30 June 2007)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Stanley Davis PHILLIPS

embassy: Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [372] 668-8100

FAX: [372] 668-8134
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Vaino REINART

chancery: 2131 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101

FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international Russia recalled its signature to the 1996 technical border agreement with Estonia in 2005, rather than concede to Estonia's appending prepared a unilateral declaration referencing Soviet occupation and territorial losses; Russia demands better accommodation of Russian-speaking population in Estonia; Estonian citizen groups continue to press for realignment of the boundary based on the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty that would bring the now divided ethnic Setu people and parts of the Narva region within Estonia; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Estonia must implement the strict Schengen border rules with Russia
Economic aid - recipient $135.5 million (2004)
Economy - overview Estonia, a 2004 European Union entrant, has a modern market-based economy and one of the highest per capita income levels in Central Europe. The economy benefits from strong electronics and telecommunications sectors and strong trade ties with Finland, Sweden, and Germany. The current government has pursued relatively sound fiscal policies, resulting in balanced budgets and low public debt. In 2007, however, a large current account deficit and rising inflation put pressure on Estonia's currency, which is pegged to the euro, highlighting the need for growth in export-generating industries.
Electricity - consumption 6.888 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 1.953 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 345 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 9.599 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m
Environment - current issues air polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 80% less than in 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies in 2000 was one twentieth the level of 1980; in connection with the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Estonian 67.9%, Russian 25.6%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Belarusian 1.3%, Finn 0.9%, other 2.2% (2000 census)
Exchange rates krooni per US dollar - 11.535 (2007), 12.473 (2006), 12.584 (2005), 12.596 (2004), 13.856 (2003)

note: the krooni is pegged to the euro
Executive branch chief of state: President Toomas Hendrik ILVES (since 9 October 2006)

head of government: Prime Minister Andrus ANSIP (since 12 April 2005)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament

elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); if a candidate does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting in the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last held 23 September 2006 (next to be held in the fall of 2011); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament

election results: Toomas Hendrik ILVES elected president on 23 September 2006 by a 345-member electoral assembly; ILVES received 174 votes to incumbent Arnold RUUTEL's 162; remaining 9 ballots left blank or invalid
Exports 1.953 billion kWh (2005)
Exports $11.31 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 3,958 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment 33%, wood and paper 15%, textiles 14%, food products 8%, furniture 7%, metals, chemical products (2001)
Exports - partners Finland 18.2%, Sweden 12.2%, Latvia 9.1%, Russia 7.9%, US 6.6%, Germany 5%, Lithuania 4.8%, Gibraltar 4.5% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 2.9%

industry: 28.9%

services: 68.2% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 7.3% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 59 00 N, 26 00 E
Geography - note the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands
Heliports 1 (2007)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.5%

highest 10%: 27.6% (2003)
Illicit drugs growing producer of synthetic drugs; increasingly important transshipment zone for cannabis, cocaine, opiates, and synthetic drugs since joining the European Union and the Schengen Accord; potential money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking is a concern, as is possible use of the gambling sector to launder funds; major use of opiates and ecstasy
Imports 345 million kWh (2005)
Imports $14.71 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 1.458 billion cu m (2005)
Imports 54,000 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment 33.5%, chemical products 11.6%, textiles 10.3%, foodstuffs 9.4%, transportation equipment 8.9% (2001)
Imports - partners Finland 18.4%, Russia 12.9%, Germany 12.3%, Sweden 9.2%, Lithuania 6.4%, Latvia 5.8% (2006)
Independence 20 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 6.1% (2007 est.)
Industries engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textile; information technology, telecommunications
Infant mortality rate total: 7.59 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 8.77 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 6.3% (2007 est.)
International organization participation Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNITAR, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land 40 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament for life)
Labor force 688,000 (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 11%

industry: 20%

services: 69% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 633 km

border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km
Land use arable land: 12.05%

permanent crops: 0.35%

other: 87.6% (2005)
Languages Estonian (official) 67.3%, Russian 29.7%, other 2.3%, unknown 0.7% (2000 census)
Legal system based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 4 March 2007 (next to be held in March 2011)

election results: percent of vote by party - Estonian Reform Party 27.8%, Center Party of Estonia 26.1%, Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica 17.9%, Social Democratic Party 10.6%, Estonian Greens 7.1%, Estonian People's Union 7.1%, other 5%; seats by party - Reform Party 31, Center Party 29, Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica 19, Social Democrats 10, Estonian Greens 6, People's Union 6
Life expectancy at birth total population: 72.3 years

male: 66.87 years

female: 78.07 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.8%

male: 99.8%

female: 99.8% (2000 census)
Location Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia
Map references Europe
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states
Merchant marine total: 33 ships (1000 GRT or over) 393,655 GRT/93,245 DWT

by type: cargo 7, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 23, petroleum tanker 2

foreign-owned: 4 (Denmark 2, Norway 2)

registered in other countries: 67 (Antigua and Barbuda 15, Belize 1, Cambodia 1, Cyprus 5, Dominica 8, Latvia 1, Liberia 1, Malta 7, Norway 1, Panama 3, Slovakia 2, St Kitts and Nevis 1, St Vincent and The Grenadines 20, Vanuatu 1) (2007)
Military branches Estonian Defense Forces: Land Force, Navy, Air Force (Eesti Ohuvagi), Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit, KL) (2008)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2% (2005 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 24 February (1918); note - 24 February 1918 was the date Estonia declared its independence from Soviet Russia; 20 August 1991 was the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union
Nationality noun: Estonian(s)

adjective: Estonian
Natural hazards sometimes flooding occurs in the spring
Natural resources oil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud
Net migration rate -3.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines gas 859 km (2007)
Political parties and leaders Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) [Edgar SAVISAAR]; Estonian Greens (Rohelised) [Marek STRANDBERG]; Estonian People's Union (Rahvaliit) [Villu REILJAN]; Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) [Andrus ANSIP]; Estonian United Russian People's Party or EUVRP [Yevgeniy TOMBERG]; Social Democratic Party (formerly People's Party Moodukad or Moderates) [Ivari PADAR]; Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica (Isamaa je Res Publica Liit) [Mart LAAR]
Political pressure groups and leaders Nochnoy Dozor/Night Watch anti-fascist movement (leader Alexander KOROBOV)
Population 1,315,912 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 5% (2003)
Population growth rate -0.635% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 98, shortwave 0 (2001)
Railways total: 968 km

broad gauge: 968 km 1.520 m/1.524-m gauge (2006)
Religions Evangelical Lutheran 13.6%, Orthodox 12.8%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 1.4%, unaffiliated 34.1%, other and unspecified 32%, none 6.1% (2000 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.911 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.496 male(s)/female

total population: 0.842 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens
Telephone system general assessment: foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic in the digital mode; Internet services are widely available; schools and libraries are connected to the internet, a large percentage of the population files income-tax returns online, and online voting was used for the first time in the 2005 local elections

domestic: a wide range of high quality voice, data, and Internet services is available throughout the country

international: country code - 372; fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide worldwide packet-switched service; 2 international switches are located in Tallinn (2001)
Telephones - main lines in use 541,900 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1.659 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 3 (2001)
Terrain marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south
Total fertility rate 1.41 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 5.2% (2007 est.)
Waterways 320 km (2006)
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