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Estonia 2001 roku

 Estonia
Podzial administracyjny 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond): Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuessaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru)

note:
counties have the administrative center name following w parentheses
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years:
17.08% (male 123,997; female 119,166)

15-64 years:
68.14% (male 466,823; female 503,032)

65 years and over:
14.78% (male 68,802; female 141,496) (2001 est.)
Rolinictwo potatoes, fruits, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish
Lotniska 32 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total:
8

2,438 to 3,047 m:
7

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total:
24

over 3,047 m:
1

2,438 to 3,047 m:
5

1,524 to 2,437 m:
7

914 to 1,523 m:
5

under 914 m:
6 (2000 est.)
Terytorium total:
45,226 sq km

land:
43,211 sq km

water:
2,015 sq km

note:
includes 1,520 islands w the Baltic Sea
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Tlo historyczne After centuries of Swedish and Rosjan rule, Estonia attained independence w 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR w 1940, it regained its freedom w 1991 z the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Rosjan troops left w 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties z Western Europe.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 8.7 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budzet revenues:
$1.37 billion

expenditures:
$1.37 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)
Stolica Tallinn
Klimat maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Linia brzegowa 3,794 km
Konstytucja adopted 28 czerwiec 1992
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form:
Republic of Estonia

conventional short form:
Estonia

local long form:
Eesti Vabariik

local short form:
Eesti

former:
Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Waluta Estonian kroon (EEK)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 13.48 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $1.6 billion (2000 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission:
Ambassador Melissa WELLS

embassy:
Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn

mailing address:
use embassy street address

telephone:
[372] 668-8100

FAX:
[372] 668-8134
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission:
Ambassador Sven JURGENSON

chancery:
2131 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone:
[1] (202) 588-0101

FAX:
[1] (202) 588-0108

consulate(s) general:
New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Estonian and Rosjan negotiators reached a technical border agreement w grudzien 1996 which has not been signed nor ratified by Rosja as of luty 2001
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $137.3 million (1995)
Ekonomia In 2000, Estonia rebounded from the Rosjan financial crisis by scaling back its budget and reorienting trade away from Rosjan markets into EU member states. After Produkt krajowy brutto shrank 1.1% w 1999, the economy made a strong recovery w 2000, z growth estimated at 6.4% - the highest w Central and Eastern Europe. Estonia joined the Swiat Trade Organization w listopad 1999 - the second Baltic state to join - and continues its EU accession talks. For 2001, Estonians predict Produkt krajowy brutto to grow around 6%, inflation of between 4.2%-5.3%, and a balanced budget. Substantial gains were made w completing privatization of Estonia's few remaining large, state-owned companies w 2000, and this momentum is expected to continue w 2001. Estonia hopes to join the EU during the next round of enlargement tentatively set dla 2004.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 6.807 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 530 million kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - import 100 million kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 7.782 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel:
99.72%

hydro:
0.09%

nuclear:
0%

other:
0.19% (1999)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point:
Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point:
Suur Munamagi 318 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air heavily polluted z sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants w northeast; contamination of soil and groundwater z petroleum products, chemicals at former Soviet military bases; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which w agricultural areas are heavily affected by organic waste; coastal sea water is polluted w many locations
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to:
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol
Grupy etniczne Estonian 65.1%, Rosjan 28.1%, Ukrainian 2.5%, Byelorussian 1.5%, Finn 1%, other 1.8% (1998)
Kurs waluty krooni per US dollar - 16.663 (styczen 2001), 16.969 (2000), 14.678 (1999), 14.075 (1998), 13.882 (1997), 12.034 (1996); note - krooni are tied to the German deutsche mark at a fixed rate of 8 to 1
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state:
President Lennart MERI (since 5 pazdziernik 1992)

head of government:
Prime Minister Mart LAAR (since 29 marzec 1999)

cabinet:
Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament

elections:
president elected by Parliament dla a five-year term; if he or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates z the largest percentage of votes; election last held sierpien-wrzesien 1996 (next to be held w the fall of 2001); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament

election results:
Lennart MERI reelected president by an electoral assembly after Parliament was unable to break a deadlock between MERI and RUUTEL; percent of electoral assembly vote - Lennart MERI 61%, Arnold RUUTEL 39%
Eksport 530 million kWh (1999)
Eksport $3.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Eksport - towary machinery and equipment 24%, wood products 20%, textiles 17%, food products 9%, metals, chemical products (1999)
Eksport - partnerzy Finlandia 19.4%, Szwecja 18.8%, Rosja 9.2%, Lotwa 8.7%, Niemcy 7.5%, US 2.5% (1999)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet w maj 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $14.7 billion (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture:
3.6%

industry:
30.7%

services:
65.7% (1999)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $10,000 (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 6.4% (2000 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 59 00 N, 26 00 E
Autostrady total:
30,300 km

paved:
29,200 km (including 75 km of expressways); note - these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, and include, w addition to conventionally paved roads, some that are surfaced z gravel or other coarse aggregate, making them trafficable w all weather

unpaved:
1,100 km (2000)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%:
3.2%

highest 10%:
28.5% (1996)
Narkotyki transshipment point dla opiates and cannabis from Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Rosja, cocaine from Latin America to Western Europe and Scandinavia, and synthetic drugs from Western Europe to Scandinavia; possible precursor manufacturing and/or trafficking; synthetic drug production growing, trafficked to Rosja, Baltics, Finlandia
Import 100 million kWh (1999)
Import $4 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Import - towary machinery and equipment 31%, chemical products 13%, foodstuffs 11%, metal products 8%, textiles 8% (1999)
Import - partnerzy Finlandia 22.8%, Rosja 13.5%, Szwecja 9.3%, Niemcy 9.3%, Japonia 4.7% (1999)
Niepodleglosc 6 wrzesien 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 5% (2000 est.)
Przemysl oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates, electric motors, excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper, shoes, apparel
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 12.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflacja 4.1% (1999 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Dostawcy internetu 28 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 110 sq km (1996 est.)
Sadownictwo National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament dla life)
Sila robocza 785,500 (1999 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki industry 20%, agriculture 11%, services 69% (1999 est.)
Granica total:
633 km

border countries:
Lotwa 339 km, Rosja 294 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land:
25%

permanent crops:
0%

permanent pastures:
11%

forests and woodland:
44%

other:
20% (1996 est.)
Jezyki Estonian (official), Rosjan, Ukrainian, English, Finnish, other
System prawny based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections:
last held 7 marzec 1999 (next to be held NA marzec 2003)

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Center Party 28, Union of Pro Patria (Fatherland League) 18, Reform Party 18, Moderates 17, Country People's Party (Agrarians) 7, Coalition Party 7, UPPE 6
Zywotnosc total population:
69.73 years

male:
63.72 years

female:
76.05 years (2001 est.)
Pismienni definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:
100%

male:
100%

female:
100% (1998 est.)
Lokalizacja Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finlandia, between Lotwa and Rosja
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary exclusive economic zone:
limits fixed w coordination z neighboring states

territorial sea:
12 NM
Flota handlowa total:
44 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 253,460 GRT/219,727 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 2, cargo 19, combination bulk 1, container 5, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 10, short-sea passenger 6 (2000 est.)
Wojsko Ground Forces, Navy/Coast Guard, Air and Air Defense Force (not officially sanctioned), Maritime Border Guard, Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit), Security Forces (internal and border troops)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $70 million (FY99)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.2% (FY99)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49:
359,677 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49:
282,418 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males:
11,164 (2001 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 24 luty (1918); note - 24 luty 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Rosja, 6 wrzesien 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union
Narodowosc noun:
Estonian(s)

adjective:
Estonian
Naturalne zagrozenia flooding occurs frequently w the spring
Surowce naturalne shale oil (kukersite), peat, phosphorite, amber, cambrian blue clay, limestone, dolomite, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Rurociagi natural gas 420 km (1992)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Center Party or K [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman]; Christian People's Party [Aldo VINKEL]; Coalition Party and Rural Union or KMU [Andrus OOBEL, chairman]; Estonian Democratic Party (formerly Estonian Blue Party) [Jaan LAAS]; Estonian Niepodleglosc Party [leader NA]; Estonian National Democratic Party or ENDP [leader NA]; Estonian Pensioners and Families Party [Mai TREIAL]; Estonian Progressive Party [Andra VEIDEMANN]; Estonian Republican Party [leader NA]; Estonian Social-Democratic Labor Party [Tiit TOOMSALU]; Estonian Rural People's Union (1999 merger of Estonian Country People's Party and the Estonian Rural Union) [Arvo SIRENDI]; Party of Consolidation Today [leader NA]; People's Party Moderates (1999 merger of People's Party and Moderates) [Andres TARAND]; Reform Party or RE [Siim KALLAS, chairman]; Rosjan Party w Estonia [Nikolai MASPANOV]; Rosjan Unity Party [Igor SEDASHEV]; Union of Pro Patria or Fatherland League (Isamaaliit) [Mart LAAR, chairman]; United People's Party or UPPE [Viktor ANDREJEV, chairman]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 1,423,316 (lipiec 2001 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 8.9% (1995 est.)
Przyrost naturalny -0.55% (2001 est.)
Porty i stocznie Haapsalu, Kunda, Muuga, Paldiski, Parnu, Tallinn
Stacje radiowe AM 3 (all AM stations inactive since lipiec 1998), FM 82, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radia 1.01 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total:
1,018 km common carrier lines only; does not include dedicated industrial lines

broad gauge:
1,018 km 1.520-m gauge (132 km electrified) (1995)
Religie Evangelical Lutheran, Rosjan Orthodox, Estonian Orthodox, Baptist, Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Word of Life, Jewish
Wspolczynnik plci at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.49 male(s)/female

total population:
0.86 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal dla all Estonian citizens
System telefoniczny general assessment:
foreign investment w the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; Internet services available throughout most of the country; about 150,000 unfilled subscriber requests

domestic:
local - the Ministry of Transport and Communications is expanding cellular telephone services to form rural networks; intercity - highly developed fiber-optic backbone (double loop) system presently serving at least 16 major cities (1998)

international:
fiber-optic cables to Finlandia, Szwecja, Lotwa, and Rosja provide worldwide packet-switched service; two international switches are located w Tallinn
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 476,078 (yearend 1998)
Telefony komorkowe 475,000 (yearend 2000)
Stacje telewizyjne 31 (plus five repeaters) (wrzesien 1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu marshy, lowlands
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.21 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 11.7% (1999 est.)
Drogi wodne 320 km (perennially navigable)
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