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Estonia (2001)

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Estonia 2001 year

Administrative divisions 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond): Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuessaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru)

counties have the administrative center name following in parentheses
Age structure 0-14 years:
17.08% (male 123,997; female 119,166)

15-64 years:
68.14% (male 466,823; female 503,032)

65 years and over:
14.78% (male 68,802; female 141,496) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products potatoes, fruits, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish
Airports 32 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
6 (2000 est.)
Area total:
45,226 sq km

43,211 sq km

2,015 sq km

includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
Area - comparative slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Background After centuries of Swedish and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940, it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe.
Birth rate 8.7 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$1.37 billion

$1.37 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)
Capital Tallinn
Climate maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Coastline 3,794 km
Constitution adopted 28 June 1992
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Estonia

conventional short form:

local long form:
Eesti Vabariik

local short form:

Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Currency Estonian kroon (EEK)
Death rate 13.48 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $1.6 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Melissa WELLS

Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn

mailing address:
use embassy street address

[372] 668-8100

[372] 668-8134
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Sven JURGENSON

2131 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 588-0101

[1] (202) 588-0108

consulate(s) general:
New York
Disputes - international Estonian and Russian negotiators reached a technical border agreement in December 1996 which has not been signed nor ratified by Russia as of February 2001
Economic aid - recipient $137.3 million (1995)
Economy - overview In 2000, Estonia rebounded from the Russian financial crisis by scaling back its budget and reorienting trade away from Russian markets into EU member states. After GDP shrank 1.1% in 1999, the economy made a strong recovery in 2000, with growth estimated at 6.4% - the highest in Central and Eastern Europe. Estonia joined the World Trade Organization in November 1999 - the second Baltic state to join - and continues its EU accession talks. For 2001, Estonians predict GDP to grow around 6%, inflation of between 4.2%-5.3%, and a balanced budget. Substantial gains were made in completing privatization of Estonia's few remaining large, state-owned companies in 2000, and this momentum is expected to continue in 2001. Estonia hopes to join the EU during the next round of enlargement tentatively set for 2004.
Electricity - consumption 6.807 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 530 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 100 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 7.782 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0.19% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point:
Suur Munamagi 318 m
Environment - current issues air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products, chemicals at former Soviet military bases; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas are heavily affected by organic waste; coastal sea water is polluted in many locations
Environment - international agreements party to:
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Estonian 65.1%, Russian 28.1%, Ukrainian 2.5%, Byelorussian 1.5%, Finn 1%, other 1.8% (1998)
Exchange rates krooni per US dollar - 16.663 (January 2001), 16.969 (2000), 14.678 (1999), 14.075 (1998), 13.882 (1997), 12.034 (1996); note - krooni are tied to the German deutsche mark at a fixed rate of 8 to 1
Executive branch chief of state:
President Lennart MERI (since 5 October 1992)

head of government:
Prime Minister Mart LAAR (since 29 March 1999)

Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament

president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; if he or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last held August-September 1996 (next to be held in the fall of 2001); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament

election results:
Lennart MERI reelected president by an electoral assembly after Parliament was unable to break a deadlock between MERI and RUUTEL; percent of electoral assembly vote - Lennart MERI 61%, Arnold RUUTEL 39%
Exports 530 million kWh (1999)
Exports $3.1 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment 24%, wood products 20%, textiles 17%, food products 9%, metals, chemical products (1999)
Exports - partners Finland 19.4%, Sweden 18.8%, Russia 9.2%, Latvia 8.7%, Germany 7.5%, US 2.5% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white
GDP purchasing power parity - $14.7 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


65.7% (1999)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $10,000 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6.4% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 59 00 N, 26 00 E
Highways total:
30,300 km

29,200 km (including 75 km of expressways); note - these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, and include, in addition to conventionally paved roads, some that are surfaced with gravel or other coarse aggregate, making them trafficable in all weather

1,100 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
28.5% (1996)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Russia, cocaine from Latin America to Western Europe and Scandinavia, and synthetic drugs from Western Europe to Scandinavia; possible precursor manufacturing and/or trafficking; synthetic drug production growing, trafficked to Russia, Baltics, Finland
Imports 100 million kWh (1999)
Imports $4 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment 31%, chemical products 13%, foodstuffs 11%, metal products 8%, textiles 8% (1999)
Imports - partners Finland 22.8%, Russia 13.5%, Sweden 9.3%, Germany 9.3%, Japan 4.7% (1999)
Independence 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 5% (2000 est.)
Industries oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates, electric motors, excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper, shoes, apparel
Infant mortality rate 12.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 4.1% (1999 est.)
International organization participation BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 28 (2000)
Irrigated land 110 sq km (1996 est.)
Judicial branch National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament for life)
Labor force 785,500 (1999 est.)
Labor force - by occupation industry 20%, agriculture 11%, services 69% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total:
633 km

border countries:
Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

20% (1996 est.)
Languages Estonian (official), Russian, Ukrainian, English, Finnish, other
Legal system based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

last held 7 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2003)

election results:
percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Center Party 28, Union of Pro Patria (Fatherland League) 18, Reform Party 18, Moderates 17, Country People's Party (Agrarians) 7, Coalition Party 7, UPPE 6
Life expectancy at birth total population:
69.73 years

63.72 years

76.05 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


100% (1998 est.)
Location Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia
Map references Europe
Maritime claims exclusive economic zone:
limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states

territorial sea:
12 NM
Merchant marine total:
44 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 253,460 GRT/219,727 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 2, cargo 19, combination bulk 1, container 5, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 10, short-sea passenger 6 (2000 est.)
Military branches Ground Forces, Navy/Coast Guard, Air and Air Defense Force (not officially sanctioned), Maritime Border Guard, Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit), Security Forces (internal and border troops)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $70 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.2% (FY99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
359,677 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
282,418 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
11,164 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 24 February (1918); note - 24 February 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 6 September 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards flooding occurs frequently in the spring
Natural resources shale oil (kukersite), peat, phosphorite, amber, cambrian blue clay, limestone, dolomite, arable land
Net migration rate -0.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines natural gas 420 km (1992)
Political parties and leaders Center Party or K [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman]; Christian People's Party [Aldo VINKEL]; Coalition Party and Rural Union or KMU [Andrus OOBEL, chairman]; Estonian Democratic Party (formerly Estonian Blue Party) [Jaan LAAS]; Estonian Independence Party [leader NA]; Estonian National Democratic Party or ENDP [leader NA]; Estonian Pensioners and Families Party [Mai TREIAL]; Estonian Progressive Party [Andra VEIDEMANN]; Estonian Republican Party [leader NA]; Estonian Social-Democratic Labor Party [Tiit TOOMSALU]; Estonian Rural People's Union (1999 merger of Estonian Country People's Party and the Estonian Rural Union) [Arvo SIRENDI]; Party of Consolidation Today [leader NA]; People's Party Moderates (1999 merger of People's Party and Moderates) [Andres TARAND]; Reform Party or RE [Siim KALLAS, chairman]; Russian Party in Estonia [Nikolai MASPANOV]; Russian Unity Party [Igor SEDASHEV]; Union of Pro Patria or Fatherland League (Isamaaliit) [Mart LAAR, chairman]; United People's Party or UPPE [Viktor ANDREJEV, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 1,423,316 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 8.9% (1995 est.)
Population growth rate -0.55% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Haapsalu, Kunda, Muuga, Paldiski, Parnu, Tallinn
Radio broadcast stations AM 3 (all AM stations inactive since July 1998), FM 82, shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios 1.01 million (1997)
Railways total:
1,018 km common carrier lines only; does not include dedicated industrial lines

broad gauge:
1,018 km 1.520-m gauge (132 km electrified) (1995)
Religions Evangelical Lutheran, Russian Orthodox, Estonian Orthodox, Baptist, Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Word of Life, Jewish
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.49 male(s)/female

total population:
0.86 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens
Telephone system general assessment:
foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; Internet services available throughout most of the country; about 150,000 unfilled subscriber requests

local - the Ministry of Transport and Communications is expanding cellular telephone services to form rural networks; intercity - highly developed fiber-optic backbone (double loop) system presently serving at least 16 major cities (1998)

fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide worldwide packet-switched service; two international switches are located in Tallinn
Telephones - main lines in use 476,078 (yearend 1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 475,000 (yearend 2000)
Television broadcast stations 31 (plus five repeaters) (September 1995)
Terrain marshy, lowlands
Total fertility rate 1.21 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 11.7% (1999 est.)
Waterways 320 km (perennially navigable)
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