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Estonia (2004)

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Estonia 2004 roku

 Estonia
Podzial administracyjny 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond): Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuressaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru)


note: counties have the administrative center name following w parentheses
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 16% (male 110,452; female 104,363)


15-64 years: 67.5% (male 431,493; female 474,255)


65 years and over: 16.5% (male 72,819; female 148,282) (2004 est.)
Rolinictwo potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish
Lotniska 29 (2003 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 14


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 8


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 3


under 914 m: 1 (2003 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 15


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


1,524 to 2,437 m: 3


914 to 1,523 m: 4


under 914 m: 6 (2003 est.)
Terytorium total: 45,226 sq km


land: 43,211 sq km


water: 2,015 sq km


note: includes 1,520 islands w the Baltic Sea
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Tlo historyczne After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Rosjan rule, Estonia attained independence w 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR w 1940, it regained its freedom w 1991, z the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Rosjan troops left w 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties z Western Europe. It joined both NATO and the EU w the spring of 2004.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 9.79 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budzet revenues: $3.806 billion


expenditures: $3.648 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Stolica Tallinn
Klimat maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Linia brzegowa 3,794 km
Konstytucja adopted 28 czerwiec 1992
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Estonia


conventional short form: Estonia


local long form: Eesti Vabariik


local short form: Eesti


former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Waluta Estonian kroon (EEK)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 13.27 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $7.002 billion (2003 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Aldona Zofia WOS


embassy: Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn


mailing address: use embassy street address


telephone: [372] 668-8100


FAX: [372] 668-8134
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Juri LUIK


chancery: 2131 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101


FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108


consulate(s) general: New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Rosja continues to reject signing and ratifying the joint grudzien 1996 technical border agreement z Estonia
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $108 million (2000)
Ekonomia Estonia, as a new member of the Swiat Trade Organization, is steadily moving toward a modern market economy z increasing ties to the West, including the pegging of its currency to the euro. The economy benefits from strong electronics and telecommunications sectors. Estonia has been invited to join the Unia Europejska and will do so w maj 2004. The economy is greatly influenced by developments w Finlandia, Szwecja, Rosja, and Niemcy, four major trading partners. The high current account deficit remains a concern. However, the state budget enjoyed a surplus of $130 million w 2003.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 6.192 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 1.19 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 7.937 billion kWh (2001)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m


highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air polluted z sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants w northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 80% less than w 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies w 2000 was one twentieth the level of 1980; w connection z the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which w agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted w certain locations
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Estonian 65.3%, Rosjan 28.1%, Ukrainian 2.5%, Bialorusian 1.5%, Finn 1%, other 1.6% (1998)
Kurs waluty krooni per US dollar - 13.8564 (2003), 16.6118 (2002), 17.4781 (2001), 16.9686 (2000), 14.6776 (1999)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Arnold RUUTEL (since 8 pazdziernik 2001)


head of government: Prime Minister Juhan PARTS (since 10 kwiecien 2003)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament


elections: president elected by Parliament dla a five-year term; if he or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting w the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates z the largest percentage of votes; election last held 21 wrzesien 2001 (next to be held w the fall of 2006); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament


election results: Arnold RUUTEL elected president on 21 wrzesien 2001 by a 367-member electoral assembly that convened following Parliament's failure w sierpien to elect then-President MERI's successor; on the second ballot of voting, RUUTEL received 186 votes to Parliament Speaker Toomas SAVI's 155; the remaining 26 ballots were either left blank or invalid
Eksport 1.19 billion kWh (2001)
Eksport $4.075 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Eksport NA (2001)
Eksport - towary machinery and equipment 33%, wood and paper 15%, textiles 14%, food products 8%, furniture 7%, metals, chemical products (2001)
Eksport - partnerzy Finlandia 21.9%, Szwecja 12.5%, Rosja 11.4%, Niemcy 8.4%, Lotwa 7.4%, Litwa 4% (2003)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet w maj 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $17.35 billion (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 4.9%


industry: 30.3%


services: 64.8% (2003)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $12,300 (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 4.7% (2003 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 59 00 N, 26 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands
Autostrady total: 51,411 km


paved: 10,334 km (including 94 km of expressways)


unpaved: 41,077 km (2000)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3%


highest 10%: 29.8% (1998)
Narkotyki transshipment point dla opiates and cannabis from Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Rosja, cocaine from Latin America to Western Europe and Scandinavia, and synthetic drugs from Western Europe to Scandinavia; increasing domestic drug abuse problem; possible precursor manufacturing and/or trafficking; potential money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking is a concern as is possible use of the gambling sector to launder funds
Import 0 kWh (2001)
Import $5.535 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Import 1.27 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Import NA (2001)
Import - towary machinery and equipment 33.5%, chemical products 11.6%, textiles 10.3%, foodstuffs 9.4%, transportation equipment 8.9% (2001)
Import - partnerzy Finlandia 15.9%, Niemcy 11.1%, Rosja 10.2%, Szwecja 7.7%, Ukraina 4.3%, Chiny 4.2%, Japonia 4.1% (2003)
Niepodleglosc 20 sierpien 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 5% (2000 est.)
Przemysl engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textile; information technology, telecommunications
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 8.08 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 9.32 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 6.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflacja 1.3% (2003 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (member affiliate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 40 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament dla life)
Sila robocza 654,000 (2003 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 11%, industry 20%, services 69% (1999 est.)
Granica total: 633 km


border countries: Lotwa 339 km, Rosja 294 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 16.04%


permanent crops: 0.45%


other: 83.51% (2001)
Jezyki Estonian (official), Rosjan, Ukrainian, Finnish, other
System prawny based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)


elections: last held 2 marzec 2003 (next to be held NA marzec 2007)


election results: percent of vote by party - Center Party 25.4%, Res Publica 24.6%, Reform Party 17.7%, Estonian People's Union 13%, Pro Patria Union (Fatherland League) 7.3% People's Party Moodukad 7%; seats by party - Center Party 28, Res Publica 28, Reform Party 19, Estonian People's Union 13, Pro Patria Union 7, People's Party Moodukad 6
Zywotnosc total population: 71.38 years


male: 65.78 years


female: 77.33 years (2004 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 99.8%


male: 99.8%


female: 99.8% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finlandia, between Lotwa and Rosja
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


exclusive economic zone: limits fixed w coordination z neighboring states
Flota handlowa total: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 212,998 GRT/177,488 DWT


by type: bulk 2, cargo 12, container 4, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 7, short-sea/passenger 5


foreign-owned: Holandia 1


registered w other countries: 45 (2004 est.)
Wojsko Estonia Defense Forces (including Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force), Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit), Maritime Border Guard, Coast Guard


note: Border Guards and Ministry of Internal Affairs become part of the Estonian Defense Forces w wartime; the Coast Guard is subordinate to the Ministry of Defense w peacetime and the Estonian Navy w wartime
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $155 million (2002 est.)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2% (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 326,803 (2004 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 257,386 (2004 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 10,884 (2004 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 24 luty (1918); note - 24 luty 1918 is the date Estonia declared its independence from Soviet Rosja; 20 sierpien 1991 is the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union
Narodowosc noun: Estonian(s)


adjective: Estonian
Naturalne zagrozenia sometimes flooding occurs w the spring
Surowce naturalne oil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud
Wspolczynnik migracji -3.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Rurociagi gas 859 km (2004)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman]; Estonian People's Union (Rahvaliit) [Villu REILJAN, chairman]; Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) [Andrus ANSIP]; Estonian United Rosjan People's Party or EUVRP [Yevgeniy TOMBERG, chairman]; Pro Patria Union (Isamaaliit) [Tunne KELAM, chairman]; Res Publica [Juhan PARTS, chairman]; Social Democratic Party (formerly People's Party Moodukad or Moderates) [Ivari PADAR, chairman]; Social Liberals (group of 8 parliamentarians, former Center Party members) [Peeter Kreitzberg]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 1,341,664 (lipiec 2004 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA (2000)
Przyrost naturalny -0.66% (2004 est.)
Porty i stocznie Haapsalu, Kunda, Muuga, Paldiski, Parnu, Tallinn
Stacje radiowe AM 0, FM 98, shortwave 0 (2001)
Linie kolejowe total: 958 km


broad gauge: 958 km 1.520-m/1.524-m gauge (132 km electrified)


note: gauge being increased from 1.520-m to 1.524-m to reduce wear on wheels and rail as lines are modernized (2003)
Religie Evangelical Lutheran, Rosjan Orthodox, Estonian Orthodox, Baptist, Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Word of Life, Jewish
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/female


total population: 0.85 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal dla all Estonian citizens
System telefoniczny general assessment: foreign investment w the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic w the digital mode; Internet services are available throughout most of the country - only about 11,000 subscriber requests were unfilled by wrzesien 2000


domestic: a wide range of high quality voice, data, and Internet services is available throughout the country


international: country code - 372; fiber-optic cables to Finlandia, Szwecja, Lotwa, and Rosja provide worldwide packet-switched service; two international switches are located w Tallinn (2001)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 475,000 (2002)
Telefony komorkowe 881,000 (2002)
Stacje telewizyjne 3 (2001)
Uksztaltowanie terenu marshy, lowlands; flat w the north, hilly w the south
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.39 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 10.1% (2003)
Drogi wodne 500 km (2003)
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