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Estonia (2003)

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Estonia 2003 year

Administrative divisions 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond): Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuressaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru)

note: counties have the administrative center name following in parentheses
Age structure 0-14 years: 15.8% (male 113,239; female 108,876)

15-64 years: 68.8% (male 467,041; female 501,805)

65 years and over: 15.4% (male 71,512; female 146,083) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish
Airports 38 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 14

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

under 914 m: 4 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 24

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 6 (2002)
Area total: 45,226 sq km

land: 43,211 sq km

water: 2,015 sq km

note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
Area - comparative slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Background After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940, it regained its freedom in 1991, with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe. Estonia received invitations to join NATO and the EU in 2002.
Birth rate 9.24 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $1.89 billion

expenditures: $1.89 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
Capital Tallinn
Climate maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Coastline 3,794 km
Constitution adopted 28 June 1992
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Estonia

conventional short form: Estonia

local long form: Eesti Vabariik

local short form: Eesti

former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Currency Estonian kroon (EEK)
Death rate 13.42 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $3.3 billion (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph M. DeTHOMAS

embassy: Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [372] 668-8100

FAX: [372] 668-8134
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Juri LUIK

chancery: 1730 M Street NW, Suite 503, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101

FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international Russia continues to reject signing and ratifying the joint December 1996 technical border agreement with Estonia
Economic aid - recipient $108 million (2000)
Economy - overview Estonia, as a new member of the World Trade Organization, is steadily moving toward a modern market economy with increasing ties to the West, including the pegging of its currency to the euro. The economy benefits from strong electronics and telecoms sectors. A major goal is accession to the EU, possibly by 2004. The economy is greatly influenced by developments in Finland, Sweden, and Germany, three major trading partners. The high current account deficit remains a concern.
Electricity - consumption 6.192 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 1.19 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 7.937 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 99.8%

hydro: 0.1%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0.2% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m
Environment - current issues air polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 80% less than in 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies in 2000 was one twentieth the level of 1980; in connection with the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Estonian 65.3%, Russian 28.1%, Ukrainian 2.5%, Belarusian 1.5%, Finn 1%, other 1.6% (1998)
Exchange rates krooni per US dollar - 16.61 (2002), 17.56 (2001), 16.97 (2000), 14.68 (1999), 14.07 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President Arnold RUUTEL (since 8 October 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Juhan PARTS (since 10 April 2003)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament

elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; if he or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting in the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last held 21 September 2001 (next to be held in the fall of 2006); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament

election results: Arnold RUUTEL elected president on 21 September 2001 by a 367-member electoral assembly that convened following Parliament's failure in August to elect then-President MERI's successor; on the second ballot of voting, RUUTEL received 188 votes to Parliament Speaker Toomas SAVI's 155; the remaining 24 ballots were either left blank or invalid
Exports 1.19 billion kWh (2001)
Exports $3.4 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment 33%, wood and paper 15%, textiles 14%, food products 8%, furniture 7%, metals, chemical products (2001)
Exports - partners Finland 19.2%, Sweden 13.2%, UK 10.6%, Latvia 7.4%, Germany 7.2% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white
GDP purchasing power parity - $15.52 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 5.8%

industry: 28.6%

services: 65.6% (2001)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $11,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 59 00 N, 26 00 E
Geography - note the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands
Highways total: 51,411 km

paved: 10,334 km (including 94 km of expressways)

unpaved: 41,077 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 29.8% (1998)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Russia, cocaine from Latin America to Western Europe and Scandinavia, and synthetic drugs from Western Europe to Scandinavia; increasing domestic drug abuse problem; possible precursor manufacturing and/or trafficking
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $4.4 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Imports 1.27 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment 33.5%, chemical products 11.6%, textiles 10.3%, foodstuffs 9.4%, transportation equipment 8.9% (2001)
Imports - partners Russia 26.6%, Finland 18.9%, Germany 9.2%, Sweden 8.2% (2002)
Independence regained on 20 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 5% (2000 est.)
Industries engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textile; information technology, telecommunications
Infant mortality rate total: 12.03 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 13.88 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 10.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.7% (2002 est.)
International organization participation BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIBH, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 38 (2001)
Irrigated land 40 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament for life)
Labor force 608,600 (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation industry 20%, agriculture 11%, services 69% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 633 km

border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km
Land use arable land: 26.5%

permanent crops: 0.35%

other: 73.15% (1998 est.)
Languages Estonian (official), Russian, Ukrainian, Finnish, other
Legal system based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 2 March 2003 (next to be held NA March 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - Center Party 25.4%, Res Publica 24.6%, Reform Party 17.7%, Estonian People's Union 13%, Pro Patria Union (Fatherland League) 7.3% People's Party Moodukad 7%; seats by party - Center Party 28, Res Publica 28, Reform Party 19, Estonian People's Union 13, Pro Patria Union 7, People's Party Moodukad 6
Life expectancy at birth total population: 70.31 years

male: 64.36 years

female: 76.57 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.8%

male: 99.8%

female: 99.8% (2003 est.)
Location Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia
Map references Europe
Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 33 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 200,807 GRT/169,899 DWT

ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 13, container 5, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 6, short-sea passenger 5

note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Liberia 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Estonia Defense Forces (including Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force), Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit), Maritime Border Guard, Coast Guard

note: Border Guards and Ministry of Internal Affairs become part of the Estonian Defense Forces in wartime; the Coast Guard is subordinate to the Ministry of Defense in peacetime and the Estonian Navy in wartime
Military expenditures - dollar figure $155 million (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2% (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 360,440 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 283,278 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 11,123 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 24 February (1918); note - 24 February 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 20 August 1991 was the date of reindependence from the Soviet Union
Nationality noun: Estonian(s)

adjective: Estonian
Natural hazards sometimes flooding occurs in the spring
Natural resources oil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud
Net migration rate -0.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines gas 859 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman]; Estonian People's Union (Rahvaliit) [Villu REILJAN]; Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) [Siim KALLAS]; Estonian United Russian People's Party or EUVRP [leader NA]; Moderates (Moodukad) [Ivari PADAR]; Pro Patria Union (Isamaaliit) [Tunne KELAM, chairman]; Res Publica [Juhan PARTS]; Russian Baltic Party [Sergei IVANOV]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 1,408,556 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line NA% (2000)
Population growth rate -0.49% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Haapsalu, Kunda, Muuga, Paldiski, Parnu, Tallinn
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 98, shortwave 0 (2001)
Railways total: 968 km

broad gauge: 968 km 1.520-m/1.524-m gauge (132 km electrified)

note:: gauge being increased from 1.520-m to 1.524-m to reduce wear on wheels and rail as lines are modernized (2002)
Religions Evangelical Lutheran, Russian Orthodox, Estonian Orthodox, Baptist, Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Word of Life, Jewish
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/female

total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens
Telephone system general assessment: foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic in the digital mode; internet services are available throughout most of the country - only about 11,000 subscriber requests were unfilled by September 2000

domestic: a wide range of high quality voice, data, and internet services is available throughout the country

international: fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide worldwide packet-switched service; two international switches are located in Tallinn (2001)
Telephones - main lines in use 501,691 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 711,000 (yearend 2001)
Television broadcast stations 3 (2001)
Terrain marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south
Total fertility rate 1.27 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 12.4% (2001)
Waterways 320 km (perennially navigable) (2002)
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