Main page Compare countries Index countries Index fields


Estonia (2002)

Estonia - select year:
EstoniaEstonia (2001) (compare)
EstoniaEstonia (2003) (compare)
EstoniaEstonia (2004) (compare)
EstoniaEstonia (2005) (compare)
EstoniaEstonia (2006) (compare)
EstoniaEstonia (2007) (compare)
EstoniaEstonia (2008) (compare)

Compare with other popular countries

Estonia 2002 year

Administrative divisions 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond): Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuressaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru)

note: counties have the administrative center name following in parentheses
Age structure 0-14 years: 16.4% (male 118,603; female 114,102)

15-64 years: 68.5% (male 466,882; female 502,343)

65 years and over: 15.1% (male 70,085; female 143,666) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish
Airports 32 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 8

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 24

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 6 (2002)
Area total: 45,226 sq km

land: 43,211 sq km

water: 2,015 sq km

note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
Area - comparative slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Background After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940, it regained its freedom in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe.
Birth rate 8.96 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $1.89 billion

expenditures: $1.89 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
Capital Tallinn
Climate maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Coastline 3,794 km
Constitution adopted 28 June 1992
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Estonia

conventional short form: Estonia

local long form: Eesti Vabariik

local short form: Eesti

former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Currency Estonian kroon (EEK)
Death rate 13.44 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $3.3 billion (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph M. DeTHOMAS

embassy: Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [372] 668-8100

FAX: [372] 668-8134
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Sven JURGENSON

chancery: 1730 M Street NW, Suite 503, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101

FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international Russia continues to reject signing and ratifying the joint December 1996 technical border agreement with Estonia
Economic aid - recipient $108 million (2000)
Economy - overview Estonia, as a new member of the World Trade Organization, is steadily moving toward a modern market economy with increasing ties to the West, including the pegging of its currency to the euro. A major goal is accession to the EU, possibly by 2004. The state of the economy is greatly influenced by developments in Finland, Sweden, and Germany, three major trading partners. The trade deficit is a negative factor, whereas the internal government surplus is a plus.
Electricity - consumption 5.362 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 1.2 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 7.056 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m
Environment - current issues air polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 4.6 times smaller than in 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies fell 20 times in 2000 compared to 1980; in connection with the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Estonian 65.3%, Russian 28.1%, Ukrainian 2.5%, Belarusian 1.5%, Finn 1%, other 1.6% (1998)
Exchange rates krooni per US dollar - 17.518 (January 2002), 17.538 (2001), 16.969 (2000), 14.678 (1999), 14.075 (1998), 13.882 (1997); note - the kroon is tied to the euro at a fixed rate of 15.65 krooni per euro
Executive branch chief of state: President Arnold RUUTEL (since 8 October 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Siim KALLAS (since 28 January 2002)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament

elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; if he or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting in the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last held 21 September 2001 (next to be held in the fall of 2006); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament

election results: Arnold RUUTEL elected president on 21 September 2001 by a 367-member electoral assembly that convened following Parliament's failure in August to elect then-President MERI's successor; on the second ballot of voting, RUUTEL received 188 votes to Parliament Speaker Toomas SAVI's 155; the remaining 24 ballots were either left blank or invalid
Exports 1.2 billion kWh (2000)
Exports $3.4 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment 33%, wood and paper 15%, textiles 14%, food products 8%, furniture 7%, metals, chemical products (2001)
Exports - partners Finland 33.8%, Sweden 14%, Latvia 6.9%, Germany 6.9%, UK 4.2 (2001)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white
GDP purchasing power parity - $15.2 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 6%

industry: 29%

services: 66% (2001)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $10,900 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.4% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 59 00 N, 26 00 E
Geography - note the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands
Highways total: 30,300 km

paved: 29,200 km (including 75 km of expressways); note - these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, and include, in addition to conventionally paved roads, some that are surfaced with gravel or other coarse aggregate, making them trafficable in all weather

unpaved: 1,100 km (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 30% (1998)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Russia, cocaine from Latin America to Western Europe and Scandinavia, and synthetic drugs from Western Europe to Scandinavia; increasing domestic drug abuse problem; possible precursor manufacturing and/or trafficking
Imports 0 kWh (2000)
Imports $4.4 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment 33.5%, chemical products 11.6%, textiles 10.3%, foodstuffs 9.4%, transportation equipment 8.9% (2001)
Imports - partners Finland 18%, Germany 11%, Sweden 9%, China 9%, Russia 8% (2001)
Independence regained on 20 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 5% (2000 est.)
Industries engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textile; services; transit, information technology, telecommunications
Infant mortality rate 12.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.7% (2002)
International organization participation BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 38 (2001)
Irrigated land 40 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament for life)
Labor force 608,600 (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation industry 20%, agriculture 11%, services 69% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 633 km

border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km
Land use arable land: 26.5%

permanent crops: 0.35%

other: 73.15% (1998 est.)
Languages Estonian (official), Russian, Ukrainian, Finnish, other
Legal system based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 2 March 2003 (next to be held NA March 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - Center Party 25.4%, Res Publica 24.6%, Reform Party 17.7%, Estonian People's Union 13%, Pro Patria Union (Fatherland League) 7.3% People's Party Moodukad 7%; seats by party - Center Party 28, Res Publica 28, Reform Party 19, Estonian People's Union 13, Pro Patria Union 7, People's Party Moodukad 6
Life expectancy at birth total population: 70.02 years

male: 64.03 years

female: 76.31 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 100%

male: 100%

female: 100% (1998 est.)
Location Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia
Map references Europe
Maritime claims exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states

territorial sea: 12 NM
Merchant marine total: 37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 245,958 GRT/193,042 DWT

ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 13, container 5, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea passenger 6

note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Liberia 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Estonia Defense Forces (including Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force), Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit), Maritime Border Guard, Coast Guard

note: Border Guards and Ministry of Internal Affairs become part of the Estonian Defense Forces in wartime; the Coast Guard is subordinate to the Ministry of Defense in peacetime and the Estonian Navy in wartime
Military expenditures - dollar figure $155 million (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2% (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 359,902 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 282,716 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 11,164 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 24 February (1918); note - 24 February 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 20 August 1991 was the date of reindependence from the Soviet Union
Nationality noun: Estonian(s)

adjective: Estonian
Natural hazards sometimes flooding occurs in the spring
Natural resources oil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud
Net migration rate -0.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines natural gas 2,000 km (2002)
Political parties and leaders Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman]; Estonian People's Union (Rahsaliit) [Villu REILJAN]; Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) [Siim KALLAS]; Estonian United Russian People's Party or EUVRP; Moderates (Moodukad) [Ivari PADAR]; Pro Patria Union (Isamaaliit League) [Tunne KELAM, chairman]; Res Publica [Juhan Parts]; Russian Baltic Party [Sergei IVANOV]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 1,415,681 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line NA% (2000)
Population growth rate -0.52% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Haapsalu, Kunda, Muuga, Paldiski, Parnu, Tallinn
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 98, shortwave 0 (2001)
Radios 1.01 million (1997)
Railways total: 968 km common carrier lines only; does not include dedicated industrial lines

broad gauge: 968 km 1.520-m gauge (132 km electrified) (2001)
Religions Evangelical Lutheran, Russian Orthodox, Estonian Orthodox, Baptist, Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Word of Life, Jewish
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/female

total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens
Telephone system general assessment: foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic in the digital mode; internet services are available throughout most of the country - only about 11,000 subscriber requests were unfilled by September 2000

domestic: a wide range of high quality voice, data, and internet services is available throughout the country

international: fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide worldwide packet-switched service; two international switches are located in Tallinn (2001)
Telephones - main lines in use 501,691 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 711,000 (yearend 2001)
Television broadcast stations 3 (2001)
Terrain marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south
Total fertility rate 1.24 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 12.4% (2001)
Waterways 320 km (perennially navigable) (2002)
Sitemap: Compare countries listing (map site) | Country listing (map site)
Links: Add to favorites | Information about this website | Stats | Polityka prywatnosci
This page was generated in ##czas## s. Size this page: ##rozmiar_strony## kB.