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Estonia (2002)

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Estonia 2002 roku

 Estonia
Podzial administracyjny 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond): Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuressaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru)


note: counties have the administrative center name following w parentheses
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 16.4% (male 118,603; female 114,102)


15-64 years: 68.5% (male 466,882; female 502,343)


65 years and over: 15.1% (male 70,085; female 143,666) (2002 est.)
Rolinictwo potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish
Lotniska 32 (2001)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 8


2,438 to 3,047 m: 7


under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 24


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 5


1,524 to 2,437 m: 7


914 to 1,523 m: 5


under 914 m: 6 (2002)
Terytorium total: 45,226 sq km


land: 43,211 sq km


water: 2,015 sq km


note: includes 1,520 islands w the Baltic Sea
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Tlo historyczne After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Rosjan rule, Estonia attained independence w 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR w 1940, it regained its freedom w 1991 z the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Rosjan troops left w 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties z Western Europe.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 8.96 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budzet revenues: $1.89 billion


expenditures: $1.89 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
Stolica Tallinn
Klimat maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Linia brzegowa 3,794 km
Konstytucja adopted 28 czerwiec 1992
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Estonia


conventional short form: Estonia


local long form: Eesti Vabariik


local short form: Eesti


former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Waluta Estonian kroon (EEK)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 13.44 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $3.3 billion (2001 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph M. DeTHOMAS


embassy: Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn


mailing address: use embassy street address


telephone: [372] 668-8100


FAX: [372] 668-8134
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Sven JURGENSON


chancery: 1730 M Street NW, Suite 503, Washington, DC 20036


telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101


FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108


consulate(s) general: New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Rosja continues to reject signing and ratifying the joint grudzien 1996 technical border agreement z Estonia
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $108 million (2000)
Ekonomia Estonia, as a new member of the Swiat Trade Organization, is steadily moving toward a modern market economy z increasing ties to the West, including the pegging of its currency to the euro. A major goal is accession to the EU, possibly by 2004. The state of the economy is greatly influenced by developments w Finlandia, Szwecja, and Niemcy, three major trading partners. The trade deficit is a negative factor, whereas the internal government surplus is a plus.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 5.362 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 1.2 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 7.056 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel: 100%


hydro: 0%


nuclear: 0%


other: 0% (2000)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m


highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air polluted z sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants w northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 4.6 times smaller than w 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies fell 20 times w 2000 compared to 1980; w connection z the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which w agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted w certain locations
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol
Grupy etniczne Estonian 65.3%, Rosjan 28.1%, Ukrainian 2.5%, Bialorusian 1.5%, Finn 1%, other 1.6% (1998)
Kurs waluty krooni per US dollar - 17.518 (styczen 2002), 17.538 (2001), 16.969 (2000), 14.678 (1999), 14.075 (1998), 13.882 (1997); note - the kroon is tied to the euro at a fixed rate of 15.65 krooni per euro
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Arnold RUUTEL (since 8 pazdziernik 2001)


head of government: Prime Minister Siim KALLAS (since 28 styczen 2002)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament


elections: president elected by Parliament dla a five-year term; if he or she does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting w the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates z the largest percentage of votes; election last held 21 wrzesien 2001 (next to be held w the fall of 2006); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament


election results: Arnold RUUTEL elected president on 21 wrzesien 2001 by a 367-member electoral assembly that convened following Parliament's failure w sierpien to elect then-President MERI's successor; on the second ballot of voting, RUUTEL received 188 votes to Parliament Speaker Toomas SAVI's 155; the remaining 24 ballots were either left blank or invalid
Eksport 1.2 billion kWh (2000)
Eksport $3.4 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Eksport - towary machinery and equipment 33%, wood and paper 15%, textiles 14%, food products 8%, furniture 7%, metals, chemical products (2001)
Eksport - partnerzy Finlandia 33.8%, Szwecja 14%, Lotwa 6.9%, Niemcy 6.9%, UK 4.2 (2001)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet w maj 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $15.2 billion (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 6%


industry: 29%


services: 66% (2001)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $10,900 (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 4.4% (2002 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 59 00 N, 26 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands
Autostrady total: 30,300 km


paved: 29,200 km (including 75 km of expressways); note - these roads are said to be hard-surfaced, and include, w addition to conventionally paved roads, some that are surfaced z gravel or other coarse aggregate, making them trafficable w all weather


unpaved: 1,100 km (2000)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3%


highest 10%: 30% (1998)
Narkotyki transshipment point dla opiates and cannabis from Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Rosja, cocaine from Latin America to Western Europe and Scandinavia, and synthetic drugs from Western Europe to Scandinavia; increasing domestic drug abuse problem; possible precursor manufacturing and/or trafficking
Import 0 kWh (2000)
Import $4.4 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Import - towary machinery and equipment 33.5%, chemical products 11.6%, textiles 10.3%, foodstuffs 9.4%, transportation equipment 8.9% (2001)
Import - partnerzy Finlandia 18%, Niemcy 11%, Szwecja 9%, Chiny 9%, Rosja 8% (2001)
Niepodleglosc regained on 20 sierpien 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 5% (2000 est.)
Przemysl engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textile; services; transit, information technology, telecommunications
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 12.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflacja 3.7% (2002)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
Dostawcy internetu 38 (2001)
Nawadniane tereny 40 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament dla life)
Sila robocza 608,600 (2001 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki industry 20%, agriculture 11%, services 69% (1999 est.)
Granica total: 633 km


border countries: Lotwa 339 km, Rosja 294 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 26.5%


permanent crops: 0.35%


other: 73.15% (1998 est.)
Jezyki Estonian (official), Rosjan, Ukrainian, Finnish, other
System prawny based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)


elections: last held 2 marzec 2003 (next to be held NA marzec 2007)


election results: percent of vote by party - Center Party 25.4%, Res Publica 24.6%, Reform Party 17.7%, Estonian People's Union 13%, Pro Patria Union (Fatherland League) 7.3% People's Party Moodukad 7%; seats by party - Center Party 28, Res Publica 28, Reform Party 19, Estonian People's Union 13, Pro Patria Union 7, People's Party Moodukad 6
Zywotnosc total population: 70.02 years


male: 64.03 years


female: 76.31 years (2002 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 100%


male: 100%


female: 100% (1998 est.)
Lokalizacja Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finlandia, between Lotwa and Rosja
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary exclusive economic zone: limits fixed w coordination z neighboring states


territorial sea: 12 NM
Flota handlowa total: 37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 245,958 GRT/193,042 DWT


ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 13, container 5, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea passenger 6


note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Liberia 1 (2002 est.)
Wojsko Estonia Defense Forces (including Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force), Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit), Maritime Border Guard, Coast Guard


note: Border Guards and Ministry of Internal Affairs become part of the Estonian Defense Forces w wartime; the Coast Guard is subordinate to the Ministry of Defense w peacetime and the Estonian Navy w wartime
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $155 million (2002 est.)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2% (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 359,902 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 282,716 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 11,164 (2002 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 24 luty (1918); note - 24 luty 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Rosja, 20 sierpien 1991 was the date of reindependence from the Soviet Union
Narodowosc noun: Estonian(s)


adjective: Estonian
Naturalne zagrozenia sometimes flooding occurs w the spring
Surowce naturalne oil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Rurociagi natural gas 2,000 km (2002)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman]; Estonian People's Union (Rahsaliit) [Villu REILJAN]; Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) [Siim KALLAS]; Estonian United Rosjan People's Party or EUVRP; Moderates (Moodukad) [Ivari PADAR]; Pro Patria Union (Isamaaliit League) [Tunne KELAM, chairman]; Res Publica [Juhan Parts]; Rosjan Baltic Party [Sergei IVANOV]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 1,415,681 (lipiec 2002 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA% (2000)
Przyrost naturalny -0.52% (2002 est.)
Porty i stocznie Haapsalu, Kunda, Muuga, Paldiski, Parnu, Tallinn
Stacje radiowe AM 0, FM 98, shortwave 0 (2001)
Radia 1.01 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total: 968 km common carrier lines only; does not include dedicated industrial lines


broad gauge: 968 km 1.520-m gauge (132 km electrified) (2001)
Religie Evangelical Lutheran, Rosjan Orthodox, Estonian Orthodox, Baptist, Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Word of Life, Jewish
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/female


total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal dla all Estonian citizens
System telefoniczny general assessment: foreign investment w the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic w the digital mode; internet services are available throughout most of the country - only about 11,000 subscriber requests were unfilled by wrzesien 2000


domestic: a wide range of high quality voice, data, and internet services is available throughout the country


international: fiber-optic cables to Finlandia, Szwecja, Lotwa, and Rosja provide worldwide packet-switched service; two international switches are located w Tallinn (2001)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 501,691 (2000)
Telefony komorkowe 711,000 (yearend 2001)
Stacje telewizyjne 3 (2001)
Uksztaltowanie terenu marshy, lowlands; flat w the north, hilly w the south
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.24 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 12.4% (2001)
Drogi wodne 320 km (perennially navigable) (2002)
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