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Estonia (2005)

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Estonia 2005 roku

Podzial administracyjny 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond): Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuressaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru)

note: counties have the administrative center name following w parentheses
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 15.5% (male 106,300/female 100,446)

15-64 years: 67.7% (male 429,843/female 472,034)

65 years and over: 16.8% (male 74,037/female 150,233) (2005 est.)
Rolinictwo potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish
Lotniska 29 (2004 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 14

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 15

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 6 (2004 est.)
Terytorium total: 45,226 sq km

land: 43,211 sq km

water: 2,015 sq km

note: includes 1,520 islands w the Baltic Sea
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Tlo historyczne After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Rosjan rule, Estonia attained independence w 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR w 1940, it regained its freedom w 1991, z the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Rosjan troops left w 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties z Western Europe. It joined both NATO and the EU w the spring of 2004.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 9.91 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budzet revenues: $4.622 billion

expenditures: $4.601 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Stolica Tallinn
Klimat maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Linia brzegowa 3,794 km
Konstytucja adopted 28 czerwiec 1992
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Estonia

conventional short form: Estonia

local long form: Eesti Vabariik

local short form: Eesti

former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Wspolczynnik zgonow 13.21 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $8.373 billion (2004 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Aldona Zofia WOS

embassy: Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [372] 668-8100

FAX: [372] 668-8134
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Juri LUIK

chancery: 2131 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101

FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108

consulate(s) general: New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje in 1996, the Estonia-Rosja technical border agreement was initialed but both states have been hesitant to sign and ratify it, z Rosja asserting that Estonia needs to better assimilate Rosjan-speakers and Estonian groups pressing dla realignment of the boundary based more closely on the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty that would bring the now divided ethnic Setu people and parts of the Narva region within Estonia; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Estonia must implement the strict Schengen border rules
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $108 million (2000)
Ekonomia Estonia, as a new member of the Swiat Trade Organization and the Unia Europejska, has transitioned effectively to a modern market economy z strong ties to the West, including the pegging of its currency to the euro. The economy benefits from strong electronics and telecommunications sectors and is greatly influenced by developments w Finlandia, Szwecja, and Niemcy, three major trading partners. The current account deficit remains high; however, the state budget enjoyed a surplus of $130 million w 2003.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 6.358 billion kWh (2002)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 1.562 billion kWh (2002)
Elektrycznosc - import 200 million kWh (2002)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 8.301 billion kWh (2002)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air polluted z sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants w northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 80% less than w 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies w 2000 was one twentieth the level of 1980; w connection z the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which w agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted w certain locations
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Estonian 67.9%, Rosjan 25.6%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Bialorusian 1.3%, Finn 0.9%, other 2.2% (2000 census)
Kurs waluty krooni per US dollar - 12.596 (2004), 13.856 (2003), 16.612 (2002), 17.478 (2001), 16.969 (2000)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Arnold RUUTEL (since 8 pazdziernik 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Andrus ANSIP (since 12 kwiecien 2005)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament

elections: president elected by Parliament dla a five-year term; if a candidate does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting w the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates z the largest percentage of votes; election last held 21 wrzesien 2001 (next to be held w the fall of 2006); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament

election results: Arnold RUUTEL elected president on 21 wrzesien 2001 by a 367-member electoral assembly that convened following Parliament's failure w sierpien to elect then-President MERI's successor; on the second ballot of voting, RUUTEL received 186 votes to Parliament Speaker Toomas SAVI's 155; the remaining 26 ballots were either left blank or invalid
Eksport 1.562 billion kWh (2002)
Eksport $5.701 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Eksport NA
Eksport - towary machinery and equipment 33%, wood and paper 15%, textiles 14%, food products 8%, furniture 7%, metals, chemical products (2001)
Eksport - partnerzy Finlandia 23.1%, Szwecja 15.3%, Niemcy 8.4%, Lotwa 7.9%, Rosja 5.7%, Litwa 4.4% (2004)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet w maj 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 4.1%

industry: 28.9%

services: 67% (2004 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $14,300 (2004 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 6% (2004 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 59 00 N, 26 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands
Autostrady total: 55,944 km

paved: 13,874 km (including 99 km of expressways)

unpaved: 42,070 km (2002)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 29.8% (1998)
Narkotyki transshipment point dla opiates and cannabis from Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Rosja, cocaine from Latin America to Western Europe and Scandinavia, and synthetic drugs from Western Europe to Scandinavia; increasing domestic drug abuse problem; possible precursor manufacturing and/or trafficking; potential money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking is a concern as is possible use of the gambling sector to launder funds
Import 200 million kWh (2002)
Import $7.318 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Import 1.27 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Import NA
Import - towary machinery and equipment 33.5%, chemical products 11.6%, textiles 10.3%, foodstuffs 9.4%, transportation equipment 8.9% (2001)
Import - partnerzy Finlandia 22.1%, Niemcy 12.9%, Szwecja 9.7%, Rosja 9.2%, Litwa 5.3%, Lotwa 4.7% (2004)
Niepodleglosc 20 sierpien 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 5% (2000 est.)
Przemysl engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textile; information technology, telecommunications
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 7.87 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 9.06 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflacja 3% (2004 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (member affiliate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 40 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament dla life)
Sila robocza 660,000 (2004 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 11%, industry 20%, services 69% (1999 est.)
Granica total: 633 km

border countries: Lotwa 339 km, Rosja 294 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 16.04%

permanent crops: 0.45%

other: 83.51% (2001)
Jezyki Estonian (official) 67.3%, Rosjan 29.7%, other 2.3%, unknown 0.7% (2000 census)
System prawny based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 2 marzec 2003 (next to be held NA marzec 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - Center Party 25.4%, Res Publica 24.6%, Reform Party 17.7%, Estonian People's Union 13%, Pro Patria Union (Fatherland League) 7.3% People's Party Moodukad 7%; seats by party - Center Party 28, Res Publica 28, Reform Party 19, Estonian People's Union 13, Pro Patria Union 7, People's Party Moodukad 6
Zywotnosc total population: 71.77 years

male: 66.28 years

female: 77.6 years (2005 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.8%

male: 99.8%

female: 99.8% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finlandia, between Lotwa and Rosja
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: limits fixed w coordination z neighboring states
Flota handlowa total: 43 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 212,998 GRT/177,488 DWT

by type: cargo 17, passenger/cargo 20, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 4

foreign-owned: 6 (Norwegia 6)

registered w other countries: 51 (2005)
Wojsko Estonian Defense Forces: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force and Air Defense Staff, Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit), Maritime Border Guard, Coast Guard

note: Border Guards and Ministry of Internal Affairs become part of the Estonian Defense Forces w wartime; the Coast Guard is subordinate to the Ministry of Defense w peacetime and the Estonian Navy w wartime
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $155 million (2002 est.)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2% (2002 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 24 luty (1918); note - 24 luty 1918 is the date Estonia declared its independence from Soviet Rosja; 20 sierpien 1991 is the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union
Narodowosc noun: Estonian(s)

adjective: Estonian
Naturalne zagrozenia sometimes flooding occurs w the spring
Surowce naturalne oil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud
Wspolczynnik migracji -3.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Rurociagi gas 859 km (2004)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman]; Estonian People's Union (Rahvaliit) [Villu REILJAN, chairman]; Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) [Andrus ANSIP]; Estonian United Rosjan People's Party or EUVRP [Yevgeniy TOMBERG, chairman]; Pro Patria Union (Isamaaliit) [Tunne KELAM, chairman]; Res Publica [Juhan PARTS, chairman]; Social Democratic Party (formerly People's Party Moodukad or Moderates) [Ivari PADAR, chairman]; Social Liberals (group of 8 parliamentarians, former Center Party members) [Peeter Kreitzberg]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 1,332,893 (lipiec 2005 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa NA (2000)
Przyrost naturalny -0.65% (2005 est.)
Porty i stocznie Kopli, Kuivastu, Muuga, Tallinn, Virtsu
Stacje radiowe AM 0, FM 98, shortwave 0 (2001)
Linie kolejowe total: 958 km

broad gauge: 958 km 1.520-m/1.524-m gauge (132 km electrified) (2004)
Religie Evangelical Lutheran 13.6%, Orthodox 12.8%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 1.4%, unaffiliated 34.1%, other and unspecified 32%, none 6.1% (2000 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/female

total population: 0.84 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal dla all Estonian citizens
System telefoniczny general assessment: foreign investment w the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic w the digital mode; Internet services are available throughout most of the country - only about 11,000 subscriber requests were unfilled by wrzesien 2000

domestic: a wide range of high quality voice, data, and Internet services is available throughout the country

international: country code - 372; fiber-optic cables to Finlandia, Szwecja, Lotwa, and Rosja provide worldwide packet-switched service; two international switches are located w Tallinn (2001)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 475,000 (2002)
Telefony komorkowe 881,000 (2002)
Stacje telewizyjne 3 (2001)
Uksztaltowanie terenu marshy, lowlands; flat w the north, hilly w the south
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.39 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 9.6% (2004 est.)
Drogi wodne 500 km (2003)
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