Main page Compare countries Index countries Index fields


Estonia (2005)

Estonia - select year:
EstoniaEstonia (2001) (compare)
EstoniaEstonia (2002) (compare)
EstoniaEstonia (2003) (compare)
EstoniaEstonia (2004) (compare)
EstoniaEstonia (2006) (compare)
EstoniaEstonia (2007) (compare)
EstoniaEstonia (2008) (compare)

Compare with other popular countries

Estonia 2005 year

Administrative divisions 15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond): Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuressaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru)

note: counties have the administrative center name following in parentheses
Age structure 0-14 years: 15.5% (male 106,300/female 100,446)

15-64 years: 67.7% (male 429,843/female 472,034)

65 years and over: 16.8% (male 74,037/female 150,233) (2005 est.)
Agriculture - products potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish
Airports 29 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 14

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 1 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 15

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 6 (2004 est.)
Area total: 45,226 sq km

land: 43,211 sq km

water: 2,015 sq km

note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea
Area - comparative slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined
Background After centuries of Danish, Swedish, German, and Russian rule, Estonia attained independence in 1918. Forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1940, it regained its freedom in 1991, with the collapse of the Soviet Union. Since the last Russian troops left in 1994, Estonia has been free to promote economic and political ties with Western Europe. It joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
Birth rate 9.91 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budget revenues: $4.622 billion

expenditures: $4.601 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Capital Tallinn
Climate maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers
Coastline 3,794 km
Constitution adopted 28 June 1992
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Estonia

conventional short form: Estonia

local long form: Eesti Vabariik

local short form: Eesti

former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
Death rate 13.21 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Debt - external $8.373 billion (2004 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Aldona Zofia WOS

embassy: Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [372] 668-8100

FAX: [372] 668-8134
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Juri LUIK

chancery: 2131 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101

FAX: [1] (202) 588-0108

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international in 1996, the Estonia-Russia technical border agreement was initialed but both states have been hesitant to sign and ratify it, with Russia asserting that Estonia needs to better assimilate Russian-speakers and Estonian groups pressing for realignment of the boundary based more closely on the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty that would bring the now divided ethnic Setu people and parts of the Narva region within Estonia; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Estonia must implement the strict Schengen border rules
Economic aid - recipient $108 million (2000)
Economy - overview Estonia, as a new member of the World Trade Organization and the European Union, has transitioned effectively to a modern market economy with strong ties to the West, including the pegging of its currency to the euro. The economy benefits from strong electronics and telecommunications sectors and is greatly influenced by developments in Finland, Sweden, and Germany, three major trading partners. The current account deficit remains high; however, the state budget enjoyed a surplus of $130 million in 2003.
Electricity - consumption 6.358 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports 1.562 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports 200 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - production 8.301 billion kWh (2002)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m

highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m
Environment - current issues air polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 80% less than in 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies in 2000 was one twentieth the level of 1980; in connection with the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Estonian 67.9%, Russian 25.6%, Ukrainian 2.1%, Belarusian 1.3%, Finn 0.9%, other 2.2% (2000 census)
Exchange rates krooni per US dollar - 12.596 (2004), 13.856 (2003), 16.612 (2002), 17.478 (2001), 16.969 (2000)
Executive branch chief of state: President Arnold RUUTEL (since 8 October 2001)

head of government: Prime Minister Andrus ANSIP (since 12 April 2005)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament

elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; if a candidate does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting in the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local governments) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the largest percentage of votes; election last held 21 September 2001 (next to be held in the fall of 2006); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament

election results: Arnold RUUTEL elected president on 21 September 2001 by a 367-member electoral assembly that convened following Parliament's failure in August to elect then-President MERI's successor; on the second ballot of voting, RUUTEL received 186 votes to Parliament Speaker Toomas SAVI's 155; the remaining 26 ballots were either left blank or invalid
Exports 1.562 billion kWh (2002)
Exports $5.701 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment 33%, wood and paper 15%, textiles 14%, food products 8%, furniture 7%, metals, chemical products (2001)
Exports - partners Finland 23.1%, Sweden 15.3%, Germany 8.4%, Latvia 7.9%, Russia 5.7%, Lithuania 4.4% (2004)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 4.1%

industry: 28.9%

services: 67% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $14,300 (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6% (2004 est.)
Geographic coordinates 59 00 N, 26 00 E
Geography - note the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands
Highways total: 55,944 km

paved: 13,874 km (including 99 km of expressways)

unpaved: 42,070 km (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 29.8% (1998)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for opiates and cannabis from Southwest Asia and the Caucasus via Russia, cocaine from Latin America to Western Europe and Scandinavia, and synthetic drugs from Western Europe to Scandinavia; increasing domestic drug abuse problem; possible precursor manufacturing and/or trafficking; potential money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking is a concern as is possible use of the gambling sector to launder funds
Imports 200 million kWh (2002)
Imports $7.318 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports 1.27 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment 33.5%, chemical products 11.6%, textiles 10.3%, foodstuffs 9.4%, transportation equipment 8.9% (2001)
Imports - partners Finland 22.1%, Germany 12.9%, Sweden 9.7%, Russia 9.2%, Lithuania 5.3%, Latvia 4.7% (2004)
Independence 20 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 5% (2000 est.)
Industries engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textile; information technology, telecommunications
Infant mortality rate total: 7.87 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 9.06 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 6.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3% (2004 est.)
International organization participation Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU (new member), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (member affiliate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Irrigated land 40 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch National Court (chairman appointed by Parliament for life)
Labor force 660,000 (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 11%, industry 20%, services 69% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 633 km

border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km
Land use arable land: 16.04%

permanent crops: 0.45%

other: 83.51% (2001)
Languages Estonian (official) 67.3%, Russian 29.7%, other 2.3%, unknown 0.7% (2000 census)
Legal system based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
Legislative branch unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 2 March 2003 (next to be held NA March 2007)

election results: percent of vote by party - Center Party 25.4%, Res Publica 24.6%, Reform Party 17.7%, Estonian People's Union 13%, Pro Patria Union (Fatherland League) 7.3% People's Party Moodukad 7%; seats by party - Center Party 28, Res Publica 28, Reform Party 19, Estonian People's Union 13, Pro Patria Union 7, People's Party Moodukad 6
Life expectancy at birth total population: 71.77 years

male: 66.28 years

female: 77.6 years (2005 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.8%

male: 99.8%

female: 99.8% (2003 est.)
Location Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia
Map references Europe
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states
Merchant marine total: 43 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 212,998 GRT/177,488 DWT

by type: cargo 17, passenger/cargo 20, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 4

foreign-owned: 6 (Norway 6)

registered in other countries: 51 (2005)
Military branches Estonian Defense Forces: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force and Air Defense Staff, Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), Volunteer Defense League (Kaitseliit), Maritime Border Guard, Coast Guard

note: Border Guards and Ministry of Internal Affairs become part of the Estonian Defense Forces in wartime; the Coast Guard is subordinate to the Ministry of Defense in peacetime and the Estonian Navy in wartime
Military expenditures - dollar figure $155 million (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2% (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 24 February (1918); note - 24 February 1918 is the date Estonia declared its independence from Soviet Russia; 20 August 1991 is the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union
Nationality noun: Estonian(s)

adjective: Estonian
Natural hazards sometimes flooding occurs in the spring
Natural resources oil shale, peat, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud
Net migration rate -3.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Pipelines gas 859 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) [Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman]; Estonian People's Union (Rahvaliit) [Villu REILJAN, chairman]; Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) [Andrus ANSIP]; Estonian United Russian People's Party or EUVRP [Yevgeniy TOMBERG, chairman]; Pro Patria Union (Isamaaliit) [Tunne KELAM, chairman]; Res Publica [Juhan PARTS, chairman]; Social Democratic Party (formerly People's Party Moodukad or Moderates) [Ivari PADAR, chairman]; Social Liberals (group of 8 parliamentarians, former Center Party members) [Peeter Kreitzberg]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 1,332,893 (July 2005 est.)
Population below poverty line NA (2000)
Population growth rate -0.65% (2005 est.)
Ports and harbors Kopli, Kuivastu, Muuga, Tallinn, Virtsu
Radio broadcast stations AM 0, FM 98, shortwave 0 (2001)
Railways total: 958 km

broad gauge: 958 km 1.520-m/1.524-m gauge (132 km electrified) (2004)
Religions Evangelical Lutheran 13.6%, Orthodox 12.8%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 1.4%, unaffiliated 34.1%, other and unspecified 32%, none 6.1% (2000 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.49 male(s)/female

total population: 0.84 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens
Telephone system general assessment: foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic in the digital mode; Internet services are available throughout most of the country - only about 11,000 subscriber requests were unfilled by September 2000

domestic: a wide range of high quality voice, data, and Internet services is available throughout the country

international: country code - 372; fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide worldwide packet-switched service; two international switches are located in Tallinn (2001)
Telephones - main lines in use 475,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 881,000 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 3 (2001)
Terrain marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south
Total fertility rate 1.39 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate 9.6% (2004 est.)
Waterways 500 km (2003)
Sitemap: Compare countries listing (map site) | Country listing (map site)
Links: Add to favorites | Information about this website | Stats | Polityka prywatnosci
This page was generated in ##czas## s. Size this page: ##rozmiar_strony## kB.