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Uzbekistan (2008)

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Uzbekistan 2008 year

Administrative divisions 12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Viloyati, Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)

note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Age structure 0-14 years: 32.4% (male 4,587,338/female 4,416,014)

15-64 years: 62.8% (male 8,636,226/female 8,817,633)

65 years and over: 4.8% (male 543,417/female 779,431) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
Airports 54 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 33

over 3,047 m: 6

2,438 to 3,047 m: 13

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 21

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

under 914 m: 19 (2007)
Area total: 447,400 sq km

land: 425,400 sq km

water: 22,000 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than California
Background Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.
Birth rate 26.46 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $6.584 billion

expenditures: $6.652 billion (2007 est.)
Capital name: Tashkent (Toshkent)

geographic coordinates: 41 20 N, 69 18 E

time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
Coastline 0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
Constitution adopted 8 December 1992
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan

conventional short form: Uzbekistan

local long form: Ozbekiston Respublikasi

local short form: Ozbekiston

former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
Death rate 7.73 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $5.398 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Richard B. NORLAND

embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450

FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Abdulaziz KAMILOV

chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300

FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
Economic aid - recipient $172.3 million from the US (2005)
Economy - overview Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 11% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of its population lives in densely populated rural communities. Uzbekistan is now the world's second-largest cotton exporter and fifth largest producer; it relies heavily on cotton production as the major source of export earnings. Other major export earners include gold, natural gas, and oil. Following independence in September 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. While aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government still sponsors measures that often increase, not decrease, its control over business decisions. A sharp increase in the inequality of income distribution has hurt the lower ranks of society since independence. In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity. The Central Bank often delays or restricts convertibility, especially for consumer goods. Potential investment by Russia and China in Uzbekistan's gas and oil industry may boost growth prospects. In November 2005, Russian President Vladimir PUTIN and Uzbekistan President KARIMOV signed an "alliance," which included provisions for economic and business cooperation. Russian businesses have shown increased interest in Uzbekistan, especially in mining, telecom, and oil and gas. In 2006, Uzbekistan took steps to rejoin the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and the Eurasian Economic Community (EurASEC), both organizations dominated by Russia. Uzbek authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek tax laws and have frozen their assets. US firms have not made major investments in Uzbekistan in the last six years.
Electricity - consumption 47 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - exports 6.8 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - imports 10.5 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Electricity - production 49 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m

highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
Environment - current issues shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
Exchange rates Uzbekistani soum per US dollar - 1,263.8 (2007), 1,219.8 (2006), 1,020 (2005), 971.265 (2004), 771.029 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet)

head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 11 December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Rustam AZIMOV (since 2 January 2008)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly

elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term; previously was a five-year term, extended by constitutional amendment in 2002); election last held 23 December 2007 (next to be held in 2014); prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers appointed by the president

election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 88.1%, Aslidden RUSTAMOV 3.2%, Dilorom TASHMUKHAMEDOVA 2.9%, Akmal SAIDOV 2.6%
Exports 6.8 billion kWh (2006)
Exports $6.58 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 12.5 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Exports 6,941 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities cotton, gold, energy products, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, textiles, food products, machinery, automobiles
Exports - partners Russia 23.7%, Poland 11.6%, China 10.4%, Turkey 7.6%, Kazakhstan 5.9%, Ukraine 4.7%, Bangladesh 4.3% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon and 12 white stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 27.3%

industry: 30.3%

services: 42.4% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 8.1% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 41 00 N, 64 00 E
Geography - note along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.8%

highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
Illicit drugs transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan
Imports 10.5 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Imports $4.57 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 11,230 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and non-ferrous metals
Imports - partners Russia 27.6%, South Korea 15.1%, China 10.3%, Germany 7.8%, Kazakhstan 7.2%, Ukraine 4.7%, Turkey 4.5% (2006)
Independence 1 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 12% (2007 est.)
Industries textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, gold, petroleum, natural gas, chemicals
Infant mortality rate total: 68.89 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 73.5 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 64.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 16% officially, but 38% based on analysis of consumer prices (2007 est.)
International organization participation ADB, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Irrigated land 42,810 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly)
Labor force 14.6 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 44%

industry: 20%

services: 36% (1995)
Land boundaries total: 6,221 km

border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km
Land use arable land: 10.51%

permanent crops: 0.76%

other: 88.73% (2005)
Languages Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
Legal system based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of an upper house or Senate (100 seats; 84 members are elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; to serve five-year terms) and a lower house or Legislative Chamber (120 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 26 December 2004 and 9 January 2005 (next to be held December 2009)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 41, NDP 32, Fidokorlar 17, MTP 11, Adolat 9, unaffiliated 10

note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President KARIMOV
Life expectancy at birth total population: 64.98 years

male: 61.57 years

female: 68.56 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.3%

male: 99.6%

female: 99% (2003 est.)
Location Central Asia, north of Afghanistan
Map references Asia
Maritime claims none (doubly landlocked)
Military branches Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2% (2005 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
Nationality noun: Uzbekistani

adjective: Uzbekistani
Natural hazards NA
Natural resources natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Net migration rate -1.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines gas 9,725 km; oil 868 km (2007)
Political parties and leaders Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Dilorom TASHMUHAMMEDOVA]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milly Tiklanish) or MTP [Hurshid DOSMUHAMMEDOV]; Fidokorlar National Democratic Party (Self-Sacrificers) [Ahtam TURSUNOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan or LDPU [Adham SHADMANOV; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Asliddin RUSTAMOV]
Political pressure groups and leaders Agrarian and Entrepreneurs' Party [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Birlik (Unity) Movement [Abdurakhim POLAT, chairman]; Committee for the Protection of Human Rights [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party [Muhammad SOLIH, chairman] was banned 9 December 1992; Ezgulik Human Rights Society [Vasila INOYATOVA]; Free Farmers' Party or Ozod Dehqonlar [Nigora KHIDOYATOVA]; Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Talib YAKUBOV, chairman]; Independent Human Rights Organization of Uzbekistan [Mikhail ARDZINOV, chairman]; Mazlum; Sunshine Coalition [Sanjar UMAROV, chairman]
Population 27,780,059 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 33% (2004 est.)
Population growth rate 1.732% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 4, FM 6, shortwave 3 (2006)
Railways total: 3,950 km

broad gauge: 3,950 km 1.520-m gauge (620 km electrified) (2006)
Religions Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.039 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.979 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.697 male(s)/female

total population: 0.982 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: antiquated and inadequate; in serious need of modernization

domestic: the main line telecommunications system is dilapidated and telephone density is low; the state-owned telecom company, Uzbektelecom, is using a US$110 million loan from the Japanese government to improve main line services; mobile services are growing swiftly, with the subscriber base more than doubling in 2007 to 5.8 million

international: country code - 998; linked by landline or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will be independent of Russian facilities for international communications (2006)
Telephones - main lines in use 1.793 million (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 5.8 million (2007)
Television broadcast stations 8 (includes 1 cable rebroadcaster in Tashkent; approximately 20 stations in regional capitals) (2006)
Terrain mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
Total fertility rate 2.88 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 0.8% officially by the Ministry of Labor, plus another 20% underemployed (2007 est.)
Waterways 1,100 km (2006)
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