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Uzbekistan (2008)

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Uzbekistan 2008 roku

 Uzbekistan
Podzial administracyjny 12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Viloyati, Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)


note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following w parentheses)
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 32.4% (male 4,587,338/female 4,416,014)


15-64 years: 62.8% (male 8,636,226/female 8,817,633)


65 years and over: 4.8% (male 543,417/female 779,431) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
Lotniska 54 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 33


over 3,047 m: 6


2,438 to 3,047 m: 13


1,524 to 2,437 m: 5


914 to 1,523 m: 5


under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 21


2,438 to 3,047 m: 2


under 914 m: 19 (2007)
Terytorium total: 447,400 sq km


land: 425,400 sq km


water: 22,000 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than California
Tlo historyczne Rosja conquered Uzbekistan w the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after Swiat War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up w 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 26.46 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $6.584 billion


expenditures: $6.652 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Tashkent (Toshkent)


geographic coordinates: 41 20 N, 69 18 E


time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland w east
Linia brzegowa 0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea z a 420 km shoreline
Konstytucja adopted 8 grudzien 1992
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan


conventional short form: Uzbekistan


local long form: Ozbekiston Respublikasi


local short form: Ozbekiston


former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
Wspolczynnik zgonow 7.73 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $5.398 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Richard B. NORLAND


embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093


mailing address: use embassy street address


telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450


FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Abdulaziz KAMILOV


chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036


telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300


FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804


consulate(s) general: New York
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje prolonged drought and cotton monoculture w Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties dla Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries z Kazachstan commenced w 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border z Kirgistan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $172.3 million from the US (2005)
Ekonomia Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 11% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of its population lives w densely populated rural communities. Uzbekistan is now the world's second-largest cotton exporter and fifth largest producer; it relies heavily on cotton production as the major source of export earnings. Other major export earners include gold, natural gas, and oil. Following independence w wrzesien 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy z subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. While aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government still sponsors measures that often increase, not decrease, its control over business decisions. A sharp increase w the inequality of income distribution has hurt the lower ranks of society since independence. In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing dla full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity. The Central Bank often delays or restricts convertibility, especially dla consumer goods. Potential investment by Rosja and Chiny w Uzbekistan's gas and oil industry may boost growth prospects. In listopad 2005, Rosjan President Vladimir PUTIN and Uzbekistan President KARIMOV signed an "alliance," which included provisions dla economic and business cooperation. Rosjan businesses have shown increased interest w Uzbekistan, especially w mining, telecom, and oil and gas. In 2006, Uzbekistan took steps to rejoin the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and the Eurasian Economic Community (EurASEC), both organizations dominated by Rosja. Uzbek authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating w Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek tax laws and have frozen their assets. US firms have not made major investments w Uzbekistan w the last six years.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 47 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 6.8 billion kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - import 10.5 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 49 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m


highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting w growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Uzbek 80%, Rosjan 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
Kurs waluty Uzbekistani soum per US dollar - 1,263.8 (2007), 1,219.8 (2006), 1,020 (2005), 971.265 (2004), 771.029 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 marzec 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet)


head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 11 grudzien 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Rustam AZIMOV (since 2 styczen 2008)


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president z approval of the Supreme Assembly


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a seven-year term (eligible dla a second term; previously was a five-year term, extended by constitutional amendment w 2002); election last held 23 grudzien 2007 (next to be held w 2014); prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers appointed by the president


election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 88.1%, Aslidden RUSTAMOV 3.2%, Dilorom TASHMUKHAMEDOVA 2.9%, Akmal SAIDOV 2.6%
Eksport 6.8 billion kWh (2006)
Eksport $6.58 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 12.5 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Eksport 6,941 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary cotton, gold, energy products, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, textiles, food products, machinery, automobiles
Eksport - partnerzy Rosja 23.7%, Polska 11.6%, Chiny 10.4%, Turcja 7.6%, Kazachstan 5.9%, Ukraina 4.7%, Bangladesz 4.3% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations z a white crescent moon and 12 white stars w the upper hoist-side quadrant
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 27.3%


industry: 30.3%


services: 42.4% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 8.1% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 41 00 N, 64 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne along z Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries w the world
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.8%


highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
Narkotyki transit country dla Afghan narcotics bound dla Rosjan and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy dla domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point dla heroin precursor chemicals bound dla Afganistan
Import 10.5 billion kWh (2006 est.)
Import $4.57 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 11,230 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and non-ferrous metals
Import - partnerzy Rosja 27.6%, South Korea 15.1%, Chiny 10.3%, Niemcy 7.8%, Kazachstan 7.2%, Ukraina 4.7%, Turcja 4.5% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 1 wrzesien 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 12% (2007 est.)
Przemysl textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, gold, petroleum, natural gas, chemicals
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 68.89 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 73.5 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 64.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 16% officially, but 38% based on analysis of consumer prices (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ADB, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Nawadniane tereny 42,810 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly)
Sila robocza 14.6 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 44%


industry: 20%


services: 36% (1995)
Granica total: 6,221 km


border countries: Afganistan 137 km, Kazachstan 2,203 km, Kirgistan 1,099 km, Tadzykistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 10.51%


permanent crops: 0.76%


other: 88.73% (2005)
Jezyki Uzbek 74.3%, Rosjan 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
System prawny based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of an upper house or Senate (100 seats; 84 members are elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; to serve five-year terms) and a lower house or Legislative Chamber (120 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held 26 grudzien 2004 and 9 styczen 2005 (next to be held grudzien 2009)


election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 41, NDP 32, Fidokorlar 17, MTP 11, Adolat 9, unaffiliated 10


note: all parties w the Supreme Assembly support President KARIMOV
Zywotnosc total population: 64.98 years


male: 61.57 years


female: 68.56 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 99.3%


male: 99.6%


female: 99% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Central Asia, north of Afganistan
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary none (doubly landlocked)
Wojsko Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 2% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 1 wrzesien (1991)
Narodowosc noun: Uzbekistani


adjective: Uzbekistani
Naturalne zagrozenia NA
Surowce naturalne natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Wspolczynnik migracji -1.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 9,725 km; oil 868 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Dilorom TASHMUHAMMEDOVA]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milly Tiklanish) or MTP [Hurshid DOSMUHAMMEDOV]; Fidokorlar National Democratic Party (Self-Sacrificers) [Ahtam TURSUNOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan or LDPU [Adham SHADMANOV; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Asliddin RUSTAMOV]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Agrarian and Entrepreneurs' Party [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Birlik (Unity) Movement [Abdurakhim POLAT, chairman]; Committee dla the Protection of Human Rights [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party [Muhammad SOLIH, chairman] was banned 9 grudzien 1992; Ezgulik Human Rights Society [Vasila INOYATOVA]; Free Farmers' Party or Ozod Dehqonlar [Nigora KHIDOYATOVA]; Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Talib YAKUBOV, chairman]; Independent Human Rights Organization of Uzbekistan [Mikhail ARDZINOV, chairman]; Mazlum; Sunshine Coalition [Sanjar UMAROV, chairman]
Ludnosc 27,780,059 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 33% (2004 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.732% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 4, FM 6, shortwave 3 (2006)
Linie kolejowe total: 3,950 km


broad gauge: 3,950 km 1.520-m gauge (620 km electrified) (2006)
Religie Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.039 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.979 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.697 male(s)/female


total population: 0.982 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: antiquated and inadequate; w serious need of modernization


domestic: the main line telecommunications system is dilapidated and telephone density is low; the state-owned telecom company, Uzbektelecom, is using a US$110 million loan from the Japoniaese government to improve main line services; mobile services are growing swiftly, z the subscriber base more than doubling w 2007 to 5.8 million


international: country code - 998; linked by landline or microwave radio relay z CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will be independent of Rosjan facilities dla international communications (2006)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 1.793 million (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 5.8 million (2007)
Stacje telewizyjne 8 (includes 1 cable rebroadcaster w Tashkent; approximately 20 stations w regional capitals) (2006)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert z dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley w east surrounded by mountainous Tadzykistan and Kirgistan; shrinking Aral Sea w west
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.88 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 0.8% officially by the Ministry of Labor, plus another 20% underemployed (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 1,100 km (2006)
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