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Uzbekistan (2002)

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Uzbekistan 2002 year

Administrative divisions 12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qaraqalpog'iston Respublikasi* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Viloyati, Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)

note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Age structure 0-14 years: 35.5% (male 4,617,110; female 4,457,065)

15-64 years: 59.8% (male 7,567,510; female 7,726,753)

65 years and over: 4.7% (male 482,137; female 712,866) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
Airports 267 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 10

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5

under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 257

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 8

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11

914 to 1,523 m: 13

under 914 m: 222 (2002)
Area total: 447,400 sq km

land: 425,400 sq km

water: 22,000 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than California
Background Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include insurgency by Islamic militants based in Tajikistan and Afghanistan, a nonconvertible currency, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.
Birth rate 26.09 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $4 billion

expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
Capital Tashkent (Toshkent)
Climate mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
Coastline 0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
Constitution new constitution adopted 8 December 1992
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan

conventional short form: Uzbekistan

local long form: Ozbekiston Respublikasi

local short form: Ozbekiston

former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
Currency Uzbekistani sum (UZS)
Death rate 7.98 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $5.1 billion (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador John Edward HERBST

embassy: 82 Chilanzarskaya, Tashkent 700115

mailing address: use embassy street address; US Embassy Tashkent, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7110

telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450

FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Shavkat HAMRAKULOV

chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300

FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804

consulate(s) general: New York
Disputes - international dispute over access to Sokh and other Uzbek enclaves in Kyrgyzstan mars progress on international boundary delimitation; Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan wrestle with sharing limited water resources; Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan contend with the regional environmental degradation caused by the shrinking Aral Sea; the border with Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan is mined in certain sections, continuing to cause civilian casualties
Economic aid - recipient approximately $150 million from the US (2001)
Economy - overview Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 11% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of its population lives in densely populated rural communities. Uzbekistan is now the world's second largest cotton exporter, a large producer of gold and oil, and a regionally significant producer of chemicals and machinery. Following independence in December 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. The state continues to be a dominating influence in the economy and has so far failed to bring about much-needed structural changes. The IMF suspended Uzbekistan's $185 million standby arrangement in late 1996 because of governmental steps that made impossible fulfillment of Fund conditions. Uzbekistan has responded to the negative external conditions generated by the Asian and Russian financial crises by emphasizing import substitute industrialization and by tightening export and currency controls within its already largely closed economy. Economic policies that have repelled foreign investment are a major factor in the economy's stagnation. A growing debt burden, persistent inflation, and a poor business climate led to disappointing growth in 2001. However, in December 2001 the government voiced a renewed interest in economic reform, seeking advice from the IMF and other financial institutions.
Electricity - consumption 41.89 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 4.1 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 5 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 44.075 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 87%

hydro: 13%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m

highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
Environment - current issues shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
Exchange rates Uzbekistani sums per US dollar - 687.0 (January 2002), 325.0 (January 2001), 141.4 (January 2000), 111.9 (February 1999), 110.95 (December 1998), 75.8 (September 1997)
Executive branch chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet)

head of government: Prime Minister Otkir SULTONOV (since 21 December 1995)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly

elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (previously was a five-year term, extended by constitutional ammendment in 2002); election last held 9 January 2000 (next to be held NA 2007); prime minister and deputy ministers appointed by the president

election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 91.9%, Abdulkhafiz JALALOV 4.2%
Exports 4.1 billion kWh (2000)
Exports $2.8 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities cotton 41.5%, gold 9.6%, energy products 9.6%, mineral fertilizers, ferrous metals, textiles, food products, automobiles (1998 est.)
Exports - partners Russia 16.7%, Switzerland 8.3%, UK 7.2%, Ukraine 4.7%, South Korea 3.3%, Kazakhstan 3.1% (2000)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon and 12 white stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant
GDP purchasing power parity - $62 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 33%

industry: 24%

services: 43% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 41 00 N, 64 00 E
Geography - note along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
Highways total: 81,600 km

paved: 71,237 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)

unpaved: 10,363 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 25% (1993) (1993)
Illicit drugs transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan
Imports 5 billion kWh (2000)
Imports $2.5 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment 49.8%, foodstuffs 16.4%, chemicals, metals (1998 est.)
Imports - partners Russia 15.8%, South Korea 9.8%, US 8.7%, Germany 8.6%, Kazakhstan 7.3%, Ukraine 6.1% (2002)
Independence 1 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate 3.5% (2000 est.)
Industries textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, natural gas, chemicals
Infant mortality rate 71.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 23% (2001 est.)
International organization participation AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 42 (2000)
Irrigated land 42,810 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly)
Labor force 11.9 million (1998 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 44%, industry 20%, services 36% (1995) (1995)
Land boundaries total: 6,221 km

border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km
Land use arable land: 10.8%

permanent crops: 0.91%

other: 88.29% (1998 est.)
Languages Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
Legal system evolution of Soviet civil law; still lacks independent judicial system
Legislative branch unicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis (250 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - 2002 ammendment to the constitution creates a second chamber to be established via elections in 2004

elections: last held 5 December and 19 December 1999 (next to be held NA December 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NDP 48, Self-Sacrificers Party 34, Fatherland Progress Party 20, Adolat Social Democratic Party 11, MTP 10, citizens' groups 16, local government 110, vacant 1

note: not all seats in the last Supreme Assembly election were contested; all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President KARIMOV
Life expectancy at birth total population: 63.9 years

male: 60.38 years

female: 67.6 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99%

male: 99%

female: 99% (yearend 1996)
Location Central Asia, north of Afghanistan
Map references Asia
Maritime claims none (doubly landlocked)
Military branches Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Security Forces (internal security and border troops)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $200 million (FY97)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 2% (FY97)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 6,747,221 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 5,478,766 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 274,602 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
Nationality noun: Uzbek(s)

adjective: Uzbek
Natural hazards NA
Natural resources natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Net migration rate -1.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 810 km (1992)
Political parties and leaders Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Anwar JURABAYEV, first secretary]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milly Tiklanish) or MTP [Aziz KAYUMOV, chairman]; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Abdulkhafiz JALOLOV, first secretary]; Self-Sacrificers Party or Fidokorlar National Democratic Party [Ahtam TURSUNOV, first secretary]; note - Fatherland Progress Party merged with Self-Sacrificers Party
Political pressure groups and leaders Birlik (Unity) Movement [Abdurakhim POLAT, chairman]; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party [Muhammad SOLIH, chairman] was banned 9 December 1992; Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Abdumannob POLAT, chairman]; Independent Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Mikhail ARDZINOV, chairman]; Ezgulik [Vasilia Inoyatova]
Population 25,563,441 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 1.62% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Termiz (Amu Darya)
Radio broadcast stations AM 20, FM 7, shortwave 10 (1998)
Radios 10.8 million (1997)
Railways total: 3,656 km

broad gauge: 3,656 km 1.520-m gauge (618 km electrified) (2000)
Religions Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: antiquated and inadequate; in serious need of modernization

domestic: the domestic telephone system is being expanded and technologically improved, particularly in Tashkent and Samarqand, under contracts with prominent companies in industrialized countries; moreover, by 1998, six cellular networks had been placed in operation - four of the GSM type (Global System for Mobile Communication), one D-AMPS type (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System), and one AMPS type (Advanced Mobile Phone System)

international: linked by landline or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will be independent of Russian facilities for international communications; Inmarsat also provides an international connection, albeit an expensive one; satellite earth stations - NA (1998)
Telephones - main lines in use 1.98 million (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 130,000 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 4 (plus two repeaters that relay Russian programs), 1 cable rebroadcaster in Tashkent; approximately 20 stations in regional capitals (2003)
Terrain mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
Total fertility rate 3.03 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 10% plus another 20% underemployed (1999 est.)
Waterways 1,100 km (1990)
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