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Syria (2008)

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Syria 2008 roku

 Syria
Podzial administracyjny 14 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al Ladhiqiyah, Al Qunaytirah, Ar Raqqah, As Suwayda', Dar'a, Dayr az Zawr, Dimashq, Halab, Hamah, Hims, Idlib, Rif Dimashq, Tartus
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 36.5% (male 3,633,562/female 3,423,435)


15-64 years: 60.1% (male 5,952,275/female 5,664,236)


65 years and over: 3.3% (male 303,346/female 337,893) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas, olives, sugar beets; beef, mutton, eggs, poultry, milk
Lotniska 90 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 26


over 3,047 m: 6


2,438 to 3,047 m: 15


914 to 1,523 m: 3


under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 64


1,524 to 2,437 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 11


under 914 m: 52 (2007)
Terytorium total: 185,180 sq km


land: 184,050 sq km


water: 1,130 sq km


note: includes 1,295 sq km of Izraeli-occupied territory
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than North Dakota
Tlo historyczne Following the breakup of the Ottoman Empire during Swiat War I, Francja administered Syria until its independence w 1946. The country lacked political stability, however, and experienced a series of military coups during its first decades. Syria united z Egipt w luty 1958 to form the United Arab Republic. In wrzesien 1961, the two entities separated, and the Syrian Arab Republic was reestablished. In listopad 1970, Hafiz al-ASAD, a member of the Socialist Ba'th Party and the minority Alawite sect, seized power w a bloodless coup and brought political stability to the country. In the 1967 Arab-Izraeli War, Syria lost the Golan Heights to Izrael. During the 1990s, Syria and Izrael held occasional peace talks over its return. Following the death of President al-ASAD, his son, Bashar al-ASAD, was approved as president by popular referendum w lipiec 2000. Syrian troops - stationed w Liban since 1976 w an ostensible peacekeeping role - were withdrawn w kwiecien 2005. During the lipiec-sierpien 2006 conflict between Izrael and Hizballah, Syria placed its military forces on alert but did not intervene directly on behalf of its ally Hizballah.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 27.19 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $8.45 billion


expenditures: $10.38 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Damascus


geographic coordinates: 33 30 N, 36 18 E


time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins 1 kwiecien; ends 30 wrzesien
Klimat mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (czerwiec to sierpien) and mild, rainy winters (grudzien to luty) along coast; cold weather z snow or sleet periodically w Damascus
Linia brzegowa 193 km
Konstytucja 13 marzec 1973
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Syrian Arab Republic


conventional short form: Syria


local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Arabiyah as Suriyah


local short form: Suriyah


former: United Arab Republic (with Egipt)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 4.74 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $6.61 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Michael CORBIN


embassy: Abou Roumaneh, Al-Mansour Street, No. 2, Damascus


mailing address: P. O. Box 29, Damascus


telephone: [963] (11) 3391-4444


FAX: [963] (11) 3391-3999
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Imad MUSTAFA


chancery: 2215 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 232-6313


FAX: [1] (202) 234-9548
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Golan Heights is Izraeli-occupied z the almost 1,000-strong UN Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) patrolling a buffer zone since 1964; lacking a treaty or other documentation describing the boundary, portions of the Liban-Syria boundary are unclear z several sections w dispute; since 2000, Liban has claimed Shaba'a farms w the Golan Heights; 2004 Agreement and pending demarcation settles border dispute z Jordania; approximately two million Irakis have fled the conflict w Irak z the majority taking refuge w Syria and Jordania
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $77.85 million (2005 est.)
Ekonomia The Syrian economy grew by an estimated 3.5% w real terms w 2007 led by the petroleum and agricultural sectors, which together account dla about one-half of Produkt krajowy brutto. Higher crude oil prices countered declining oil production and led to higher budgetary and export receipts. Damascus has implemented modest economic reforms w the past few years, including cutting lending interest rates, opening private banks, consolidating all of the multiple exchange rates, raising prices on some subsidized items, most notably, gasoline and cement, and establishing the Damascus Stock Exchange-which is set to begin operations w 2008. In pazdziernik 2007, dla example, Damascus raised the price of subsidized gasoline by 20%, and may institute a rationing system w 2008. In addition, President ASAD signed legislative decrees to encourage corporate ownership reform, and to allow the Central Bank to issue Treasury bills and bonds dla government debt. Nevertheless, the economy remains highly controlled by the government. Long-run economic constraints include declining oil production, high unemployment and inflation, rising budget deficits, and increasing pressure on water supplies caused by heavy use w agriculture, rapid population growth, industrial expansion, and water pollution.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 34 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2007)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 34.94 billion kWh (2007 est.)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: unnamed location near Lake Tiberias -200 m


highest point: Mount Hermon 2,814 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution from raw sewage and petroleum refining wastes; inadequate potable water
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Grupy etniczne Arab 90.3%, Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7%
Kurs waluty Syrian pounds per US dollar - 50.0085 (2007), 51.689 (2006), 50 (2005), 48.5 (2004), 52.8 (2003)


note: data dla 2004-06 are the public sector rate; data dla 2002-03 are the parallel market rate w 'Amman and Beirut; the official rate dla repaying loans was 11.25 Syrian pounds per US dollars during 2004-06,
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Bashar al-ASAD (since 17 lipiec 2000); Vice President Farouk al-SHARA (since 11 luty 2006) oversees foreign policy; Vice President Najah al-ATTAR (since 23 marzec 2006) oversees cultural policy


head of government: Prime Minister Muhammad Naji al-UTRI (since 10 wrzesien 2003); Deputy Prime Minister dla Economic Affairs Abdallah al-DARDARI (since 14 czerwiec 2005)


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president approved by popular referendum dla a second seven-year term (no term limits); referendum last held on 27 maj 2007 (next to be held w maj 2014); the president appoints the vice presidents, prime minister, and deputy prime ministers


election results: Bashar al-ASAD approved as president; percent of vote - Bashar al-ASAD 97.6%
Eksport 0 kWh (2007)
Eksport $10.9 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2006 est.)
Eksport 150,000 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Eksport - towary crude oil, petroleum products, fruits and vegetables, cotton fiber, clothing, meat and live animals, wheat
Eksport - partnerzy Irak 27.3%, Niemcy 12.1%, Liban 9.5%, Wlochy 6.6%, Egipt 5.3%, Arabia Saudyjska 4.8% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black, colors associated z the Arab Liberation flag; two small, green, five-pointed stars w a horizontal line centered w the white band; former flag of the United Arab Republic where the two stars represented the constituent states of Syria and Egipt; similar to the flag of Jemen, which has a plain white band, Irak, which has an Arabic inscription centered w the white band, and that of Egipt, which has a gold Eagle of Saladin centered w the white band; the current design dates to 1980
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 24.6%


industry: 24.4%


services: 51% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 3.5% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 35 00 N, 38 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne there are 42 Izraeli settlements and civilian land use sites w the Izraeli-occupied Golan Heights (sierpien 2005 est.)
Ladowiska helikopterow 7 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: NA%


highest 10%: NA%
Narkotyki a transit point dla opiates, hashish, and cocaine bound dla regional and Western markets; weak anti-money-laundering controls and bank privatization may leave it vulnerable to money laundering
Import 0 kWh (2007 est.)
Import $11.49 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2006 est.)
Import 160,000 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Import - towary machinery and transport equipment, electric power machinery, food and livestock, metal and metal products, chemicals and chemical products, plastics, yarn, paper
Import - partnerzy Arabia Saudyjska 12.3%, Chiny 7.9%, Egipt 6.2%, UAE 6%, Niemcy 4.9%, Wlochy 4.9%, Ukraina 4.8%, Iran 4.5% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 17 kwiecien 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle -0.4% (2007 est.)
Przemysl petroleum, textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco, phosphate rock mining, cement, oil seeds crushing
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 27.7 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 27.94 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 27.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 7% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Nawadniane tereny 13,330 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Judicial Council (appoints and dismisses judges; headed by the President); national level - Supreme Konstytucjaal Court (adjudicates electoral disputes and rules on constitutionality of laws and decrees; justices appointed dla four-year terms by the President); Court of Cassation; Appeals Courts (Appeals Courts represent an intermediate level between the Court of Cassation and local level courts); local level - Magistrate Courts; Courts of First Instance; Juvenile Courts; Customs Courts; specialized courts - Economic Security Courts (hear cases related to economic crimes); Supreme State Security Court (hear cases related to national security); Personal Status Courts (religious; hear cases related to marriage and divorce)
Sila robocza 5.457 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 26%


industry: 14%


services: 60% (2003 est.)
Granica total: 2,253 km


border countries: Irak 605 km, Izrael 76 km, Jordania 375 km, Liban 375 km, Turcja 822 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 24.8%


permanent crops: 4.47%


other: 70.73% (2005)
Jezyki Arabic (official); Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian widely understood; French, English somewhat understood
System prawny based on a combination of French and Ottoman civil law; Islamic law is used w the family court system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral People's Council or Majlis al-Shaab (250 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)


elections: last held on 22-23 kwiecien 2007 (next to be held w 2011)


election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NPF 172, independents 78
Zywotnosc total population: 70.61 years


male: 69.27 years


female: 72.02 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 79.6%


male: 86%


female: 73.6% (2004 census)
Lokalizacja Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Liban and Turcja
Lokalizacja na mapie Middle East
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm
Flota handlowa total: 96 ships (1000 GRT or over) 353,351 GRT/512,597 DWT


by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 82, container 1, livestock carrier 4, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1


foreign-owned: 10 (Jordania 2, Liban 4, Rumunia 4)


registered w other countries: 164 (Boliwia 1, Kambodza 32, Komory 8, Cypr 2, Dominika 2, Georgia 54, Hong Kong 1, North Korea 7, Liban 1, Libia 1, Malta 4, Mongolia 1, Panama 24, Sierra Leone 8, Slowacja 2, St Kitts and Nevis 5, St Vincent and The Grenadines 11, unknown 2) (2007)
Wojsko Syrian Armed Forces: Syrian Arab Army (includes Syrian Arab Navy), Syrian Arab Air and Air Defense Force (includes Air Defense Command) (2005)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 5.9% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 17 kwiecien (1946)
Narodowosc noun: Syrian(s)


adjective: Syrian
Naturalne zagrozenia dust storms, sandstorms
Surowce naturalne petroleum, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 2,794 km; oil 2,000 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy legal parties: National Progressive Front or NPF [President Bashar al-ASAD, Dr. Suleiman QADDAH] (includes Arab Socialist Renaissance (Ba'th) Party [President Bashar al-ASAD]; Socialist Unionist Democratic Party [Fadlallah Nasr Al-DIN]; Syrian Arab Socialist Union or ASU [Safwan QUDSI]; Syrian Communist Party (two branches) [Wissal Farha BAKDASH, Yusuf Rashid FAYSAL]; Syrian Social Nationalist Party [Ali QANSU]; Unionist Socialist Party [Fayez ISMAIL])


opposition parties not legally recognized:: Arab Democratic Socialist Union Party [Hasan Abdul AZIM]; Arab Socialist Movement; Democratic Ba'th Party [Ibrahim MAHKOS]; People's Democratic Party [Riad al TURK]; Revolutionary Workers' Party [Abdul Hafeez al HAFEZ]


Kurdish parties (considered illegal): Kurdish Democratic Front [Abdul Hamid DARWISH] (includes four parties); Kurdish Coordination [Abdul Hakim BASHAR] (includes Azadi Party [Kheirudin MURAD], Future Party [Masha'l TAMMO], Yekity Party [Hasam SALE])


other parties: Nahda Party [Abdul Aziz al MISLET]; Syrian Democratic Party [Mustafa QALAAJI]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Damascus Declaration National Council [Riyad SEIF, secretary general] (a broad alliance of opposition groups and individuals including: Committee dla Revival of Civil Society [Michel KILO, Riyad SEIF]; Communist Action Party [Fateh JAMOUS]; Kurdish Democratic Alliance; Kurdish Democratic Front; Liberal Nationalists' Movement; National Democratic Front; National Democratic Rally; and Syrian Human Rights Society or HRAS [Fawed FAWUZ]); National Salvation Front (alliance between former Vice President Abd al-Halim KHADDAM, the SMB, and other small opposition groups); Syrian Muslim Brotherhood or SMB [Sadr al-Din al-BAYANUNI]; (operates w exile w London; endorsed the Damascus Declaration but is not an official member)
Ludnosc 19,314,747


note: w addition, about 40,000 people live w the Izraeli-occupied Golan Heights - 20,000 Arabs (18,000 Druze and 2,000 Alawites) and about 20,000 Izraeli settlers (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 11.9% (2006 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 2.244% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 14, FM 2, shortwave 1 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 2,711 km


standard gauge: 2,460 km 1.435-m gauge


narrow gauge: 251 km 1.050-m gauge (2006)
Religie Sunni Muslim 74%, other Muslim (includes Alawite, Druze) 16%, Christian (various denominations) 10%, Jewish (tiny communities w Damascus, Al Qamishli, and Aleppo)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.061 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.051 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.898 male(s)/female


total population: 1.049 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: fair system currently undergoing significant improvement and digital upgrades, including fiber-optic technology


domestic: the number of fixed-line connections has increased markedly since 2000; mobile-cellular service growing rapidly and teledensity has reached 25 wireless telephones per 100 persons; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay network


international: country code - 963; submarine cable connection to Cypr; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Indyjski) and 1 Intersputnik (Ocean Atlantycki region); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Irak, Jordania, Liban, and Turcja; participant w Medarabtel
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 3.243 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 4.675 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 44 (plus 17 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain; mountains w west
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 3.31 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 10% (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 900 km (not economically significant) (2005)
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