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Nigeria (2008)

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Nigeria 2008 year

Administrative divisions 36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nassarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
Age structure 0-14 years: 42.2% (male 28,726,380/female 28,301,729)

15-64 years: 54.7% (male 37,543,678/female 36,277,038)

65 years and over: 3.1% (male 1,987,521/female 2,194,818) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
Airports 70 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 36

over 3,047 m: 6

2,438 to 3,047 m: 12

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 34

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 14

under 914 m: 19 (2007)
Area total: 923,768 sq km

land: 910,768 sq km

water: 13,000 sq km
Area - comparative slightly more than twice the size of California
Background British influence and control over what would become Nigeria grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy; independence came in 1960. Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history.
Birth rate 40.2 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $20.5 billion

expenditures: $21.82 billion (2007 est.)
Capital name: Abuja

geographic coordinates: 9 12 N, 7 11 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
Coastline 853 km
Constitution new constitution adopted 5 May 1999; effective 29 May 1999
Country name conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria

conventional short form: Nigeria
Death rate 16.68 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $5.815 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Robin SANDERS

embassy: 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Abuja

mailing address: P. O. Box 5760, Garki, Abuja

telephone: [234] (9) 461-4000

FAX: [234] (9) 461-4036/4273
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Oluwole ROTIMI

chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400

FAX: [1] (202) 775-1385

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York
Disputes - international Joint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phase-out of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
Economic aid - recipient $6.437 billion (2005)
Economy - overview Oil-rich Nigeria, long hobbled by political instability, corruption, inadequate infrastructure, and poor macroeconomic management, is undertaking some reforms under a new reform-minded administration. Nigeria's former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from its overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides 20% of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 80% of budgetary revenues. The largely subsistence agricultural sector has failed to keep up with rapid population growth - Nigeria is Africa's most populous country - and the country, once a large net exporter of food, now must import food. Following the signing of an IMF stand-by agreement in August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal from the Paris Club and a $1 billion credit from the IMF, both contingent on economic reforms. Nigeria pulled out of its IMF program in April 2002, after failing to meet spending and exchange rate targets, making it ineligible for additional debt forgiveness from the Paris Club. In the last year the government has begun showing the political will to implement the market-oriented reforms urged by the IMF, such as to modernize the banking system, to curb inflation by blocking excessive wage demands, and to resolve regional disputes over the distribution of earnings from the oil industry. In 2003, the government began deregulating fuel prices, announced the privatization of the country's four oil refineries, and instituted the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy, a domestically designed and run program modeled on the IMF's Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility for fiscal and monetary management. In November 2005, Abuja won Paris Club approval for a debt - relief deal that eliminated $18 billion of debt in exchange for $12 billion in payments - a total package worth $30 billion of Nigeria's total $37 billion external debt. The deal requires Nigeria to be subject to stringent IMF reviews. GDP rose strongly in 2007, based largely on increased oil exports and high global crude prices. Newly-elected President YAR'ADUA has pledged to continue the economic reforms of his successor and the proposed budget for 2008 reflects the administrations emphasis on infrastructure improvements. Infrastructure is the main impediment to growth. The government is working toward developing stronger public-private partnerships for electricity and roads.
Electricity - consumption 16.88 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 22.53 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
Environment - current issues soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Exchange rates nairas per US dollar - 127.46 (2007), 127.38 (2006), 132.59 (2005), 132.89 (2004), 129.22 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA (since 29 May 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA (since 29 May 2007)

cabinet: Federal Executive Council

elections: president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 21 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2011)

election results: Umaru Musa YAR'ADUA elected president; percent of vote - official results not yet posted as of September 2007
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $61.81 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 11.55 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 2.203 million bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber
Exports - partners US 48.9%, Spain 8%, Brazil 7.3%, France 4.2% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 17.6%

industry: 53.1%

services: 29.3% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6.1% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 10 00 N, 8 00 E
Geography - note the Niger enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
Heliports 2 (2007)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.9%

highest 10%: 33.2% (2003)
Illicit drugs a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; consumer of amphetamines; safe haven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity; Nigeria has improved some anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in June 2006; Nigeria's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $30.35 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 167,900 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
Imports - partners China 10.7%, US 8.3%, Netherlands 6.2%, UK 5.8%, France 5.6%, Brazil 5.1%, Germany 4.6% (2006)
Independence 1 October 1960 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 3.1% (2007 est.)
Industries crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel, small commercial ship construction and repair
Infant mortality rate total: 95.52 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 102.44 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 88.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 6.5% (2007 est.)
Irrigated land 2,820 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges appointed by the President); Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government on the advice of the Advisory Judicial Committee)
Labor force 50.13 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 70%

industry: 10%

services: 20% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 4,047 km

border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km
Land use arable land: 33.02%

permanent crops: 3.14%

other: 63.84% (2005)
Languages English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani
Legal system based on English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Legislative branch bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (109 seats, 3 from each state plus 1 from Abuja; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives (360 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 21 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2011); House of Representatives - last held 21 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2011)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - official results not yet posted as of May 2007; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - official results not yet posted as of May 2007
Life expectancy at birth total population: 47.44 years

male: 46.83 years

female: 48.07 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 68%

male: 75.7%

female: 60.6% (2003 est.)
Location Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Merchant marine total: 55 ships (1000 GRT or over) 284,400 GRT/483,316 DWT

by type: cargo 5, chemical tanker 8, combination ore/oil 1, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 37, specialized tanker 2

foreign-owned: 3 (Norway 1, Singapore 1, Spain 1)

registered in other countries: 23 (Bahamas 2, Bermuda 11, Cambodia 2, Panama 6, Poland 1, Seychelles 1, unknown 2) (2007)
Military branches Nigerian Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (2007)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.5% (2006)
National holiday Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
Nationality noun: Nigerian(s)

adjective: Nigerian
Natural hazards periodic droughts; flooding
Natural resources natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
Net migration rate 0.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines condensate 124 km; gas 3,071 km; liquid petroleum gas 156 km; oil 4,347 km; refined products 3,949 km (2007)
Political parties and leaders Accord Party [Ikra Aliyu BILBIS]; Action Congress or AC [Hassan ZUMI]; Alliance for Democracy or AD [Mojisoluwa AKINFENWA]; All Nigeria Peoples' Party or ANPP [Edwin UME-EZEOKE]; All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH]; Democratic People's Party or DPP [Jeremiah USENI]; Fresh Democratic Party [Chris OKOTIE]; Labor Party [Dan NWANYANWU]; Movement for the Restoration and Defense of Democracy or MRDD [Mohammed Gambo JIMETA]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Aliyu Habu FARI]; Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [vacant]; Peoples Progressive Alliance [Clement EBRI]; Peoples Redemption Party or PRP [Abdulkadir Balarabe MUSA]; Peoples Salvation Party or PSP [Lawal MAITURARE]; United Nigeria Peoples Party or UNPP [Mallam Selah JAMBO]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 135,031,164

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 60% (2000 est.)
Population growth rate 2.379% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 83, FM 36, shortwave 11 (2001)
Railways total: 3,505 km

narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge (2006)
Religions Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.015 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.035 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.906 male(s)/female

total population: 1.022 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: further expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network is needed

domestic: the addition of a second fixed-line provider in 2002 resulted in faster growth of this service with fixed-line subscribership nearly tripling over the past five years; wireless telephony has grown rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple service providers operate nationally; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity reached 25 per 100 persons in 2006

international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 1.688 million (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 32.322 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 3 (the government controls 2 of the broadcasting stations and 15 repeater stations) (2001)
Terrain southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
Total fertility rate 5.45 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 5.8% (2006 est.)
Waterways 8,600 km (Niger and Benue rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2007)
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