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Nigeria (2004)

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Nigeria 2004 year

Administrative divisions 36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nassarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
Age structure 0-14 years: 43.4% (male 29,985,427; female 29,637,684)

15-64 years: 53.7% (male 37,502,756; female 36,205,442)

65 years and over: 2.9% (male 1,944,260; female 1,977,564) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
Airports 70 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 36

over 3,047 m: 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 11

1,524 to 2,437 m: 9

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 3 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 34

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 13

under 914 m: 18 (2004 est.)
Area total: 923,768 sq km

land: 910,768 sq km

water: 13,000 sq km
Area - comparative slightly more than twice the size of California
Background Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The president faces the daunting task of rebuilding a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, the OBASANJO administration must defuse longstanding ethnic and religious tensions, if it is to build a sound foundation for economic growth and political stability. Despite some irregularities, the April 2003 elections marked the first civilian transfer of power in Nigeria's history.
Birth rate 38.24 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $8.026 billion

expenditures: $11.09 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Capital Abuja; note - on 12 December 1991 the capital was officially transferred from Lagos to Abuja; most federal government offices have now made the move to Abuja
Climate varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
Coastline 853 km
Constitution new constitution adopted May 1999
Country name conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria

conventional short form: Nigeria
Currency naira (NGN)
Death rate 13.99 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $31.07 billion (2003 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Howard Franklin JETER

embassy: 7 Mambilla Drive, Abuja

mailing address: P. O. Box 554, Lagos

telephone: [234] (9) 523-0916/0906/5857/2235/2205

FAX: [234] (9) 523-0353
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Jibril Muhammad AMINU

chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400

FAX: [1] (202) 775-1385

consulate(s) general: Atlanta and New York
Disputes - international ICJ ruled in 2002 on the entire Cameroon-Nigeria land and maritime boundary but the parties formed a Joint Border Commission to resolve differences bilaterally and have commenced with demarcation in less-contested sections of the boundary, starting in Lake Chad in the north; Nigeria initially rejected cession of the Bakasi Peninsula; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision, the unresolved Bakasi allocation, and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; several villages along the Okpara River are in dispute with Benin; Lake Chad Commission continues to urge signatories Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over lake region, which remains the site of armed clashes among local populations and militias
Economic aid - recipient IMF $250 million (1998)
Economy - overview Oil-rich Nigeria, long hobbled by political instability, corruption, inadequate infrastructure, and poor macroeconomic management, is undertaking some reforms under the new civilian administration. Nigeria's former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides 20% of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 65% of budgetary revenues. The largely subsistence agricultural sector has failed to keep up with rapid population growth - Nigeria is Africa's most populous country - and the country, once a large net exporter of food, now must import food. Following the signing of an IMF stand-by agreement in August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal from the Paris Club and a $1 billion credit from the IMF, both contingent on economic reforms. Nigeria pulled out of its IMF program in April 2002, after failing to meet spending and exchange rate targets, making it ineligible for additional debt forgiveness from the Paris Club. The government has lacked the political will to implement the market-oriented reforms urged by the IMF, such as to modernize the banking system, to curb inflation by blocking excessive wage demands, and to resolve regional disputes over the distribution of earnings from the oil industry. During 2003, however, the government deregulated fuel prices and announced the privatization of the country's four oil refineries. GDP growth probably will rise marginally in 2004, led by oil and natural gas exports.
Electricity - consumption 14.55 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 20 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 15.67 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
Environment - current issues soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Nigeria, which is Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Exchange rates nairas per US dollar - 129.222 (2003), 120.578 (2002), 111.231 (2001), 101.697 (2000), 92.3381 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 May 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 May 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Federal Executive Council

elections: president is elected by popular vote for no more than two four-year terms; election last held 19 April 2003 (next to be held NA 2007)

election results: Olusegun OBASANJO elected president; percent of vote - Olusegun OBASANJO (PDP) 61.9%, Muhammadu BUHARI (ANPP) 31.2%, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu OJUKWU (APGA) 3.3%, other 3.6%
Exports 20 million kWh (2001)
Exports $21.8 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports 7.83 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber
Exports - partners US 38.3%, India 9.9%, Brazil 6.8%, Spain 6.2%, France 5.6%, Japan 4% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green
GDP purchasing power parity - $114.8 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 30.8%

industry: 43.8%

services: 25.4% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $900 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 7.1% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 10 00 N, 8 00 E
Geography - note the Niger enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
Heliports 1 (2003 est.)
Highways total: 194,394 km

paved: 60,068 km (including 1,194 km of expressways)

unpaved: 134,326 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.6%

highest 10%: 40.8% (1996-97)
Illicit drugs a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; safehaven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity, remains on Financial Action Task Force Non-Cooperative Countries and Territories List for continued failure to address deficiencies in money-laundering control regime
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $14.54 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
Imports - partners US 15.6%, UK 9.6%, Germany 7.3%, China 7.2%, Italy 4.3% (2003)
Independence 1 October 1960 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 2.3% (2003 est.)
Industries crude oil, coal, tin, columbite, palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel
Infant mortality rate total: 70.49 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 73.55 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 67.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 13.8% (2003 est.)
Irrigated land 2,330 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges appointed by the President); Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government on the advice of the Advisory Judicial Committee)
Labor force 54.36 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 70%, industry 10%, services 20% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 4,047 km

border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km
Land use arable land: 31.29%

permanent crops: 2.96%

other: 65.75% (2001)
Languages English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani
Legal system based on English common law, Islamic Shariah law (only in some northern states), and traditional law
Legislative branch bicameral National Assembly consists of Senate (107 seats, members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives (346 seats, members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 12 April 2003 (next to be held NA 2007); House of Representatives - last held 12 April 2003 (next to be held NA 2007)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PDP 53.6%, ANPP 27.9%, AD 9.7%; seats by party - PDP 73, ANPP 28, AD 6; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDP 54.5%, ANPP 27.4%, AD 9.3%, other 8.8%; seats by party - PDP 213, ANPP 95, AD 31, other 7; note - two constituencies are not reported
Life expectancy at birth total population: 50.49 years

male: 50.35 years

female: 50.63 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 68%

male: 75.7%

female: 60.6% (2003 est.)
Location Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Merchant marine total: 45 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 327,808 GRT/608,076 DWT

by type: cargo 7, chemical tanker 5, petroleum tanker 30, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1, specialized tanker 1

foreign-owned: Norway 2, Pakistan 1, Togo 1, United States 1

registered in other countries: 26 (2004 est.)
Military branches Army, Navy, Air Force
Military expenditures - dollar figure $469.8 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.9% (2003)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 32,665,407 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 18,763,229 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 1,452,231 (2004 est.)
National holiday Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
Nationality noun: Nigerian(s)

adjective: Nigerian
Natural hazards periodic droughts; flooding
Natural resources natural gas, petroleum, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc, arable land
Net migration rate 0.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Pipelines condensate 105 km; gas 1,896 km; oil 3,638 km; refined products 3,626 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Alliance for Democracy or AD [Alhaji Adamu ABDULKADIR]; All Nigeria Peoples' Party or ANPP [Don ETIEBET]; All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Chekwas OKORIE]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Aliyu Habu FARI]; Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Audu OGBEH]; Peoples Redemption Party or PRP [Abdulkadir Balarabe MUSA]; Peoples Salvation Party or PSP [Lawal MAITURARE]; United Nigeria Peoples Party or UNPP [Saleh JAMBO]
Political pressure groups and leaders Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC [Adams OSHIOMOLE]
Population 137,253,133

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 60% (2000 est.)
Population growth rate 2.45% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Calabar, Lagos, Onne, Port Harcourt, Sapele, Warri
Radio broadcast stations AM 83, FM 36, shortwave 11 (2001)
Railways total: 3,557 km

narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge

standard gauge: 52 km 1.435-m gauge (2003)
Religions Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: an inadequate system, further limited by poor maintenance; major expansion is required and a start has been made

domestic: intercity traffic is carried by coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, a domestic communications satellite system with 19 earth stations, and a coastal submarine cable; mobile cellular facilities and the Internet are available

international: country code - 234; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
Telephones - main lines in use 853,100 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 3,149,500 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 3 (the government controls 2 of the broadcasting stations and 15 repeater stations) (2002)
Terrain southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
Total fertility rate 5.32 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate NA (2003 est.)
Waterways 8,600 km (Niger and Benue rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2004)
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