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Nigeria (2006)

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Nigeria 2006 year

Administrative divisions 36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nassarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
Age structure 0-14 years: 42.3% (male 28,089,017/female 27,665,212)

15-64 years: 54.6% (male 36,644,885/female 35,405,915)

65 years and over: 3.1% (male 1,930,007/female 2,124,695) (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
Airports 69 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways total: 36

over 3,047 m: 6

2,438 to 3,047 m: 12

1,524 to 2,437 m: 10

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 2 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 33

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2

914 to 1,523 m: 13

under 914 m: 18 (2006)
Area total: 923,768 sq km

land: 910,768 sq km

water: 13,000 sq km
Area - comparative slightly more than twice the size of California
Background British influence and control over what would become Nigeria grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy; independence came in 1960. Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The president faces the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, the OBASANJO administration must defuse longstanding ethnic and religious tensions, if it is to build a sound foundation for economic growth and political stability. Although the April 2003 elections were marred by some irregularities, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence.
Birth rate 40.43 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budget revenues: $12.86 billion

expenditures: $13.54 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Capital name: Abuja

geographic coordinates: 9 12 N, 7 11 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
Coastline 853 km
Constitution new constitution adopted May 1999
Country name conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria

conventional short form: Nigeria
Death rate 16.94 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Debt - external $32.45 billion (2005 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador John CAMPBELL

embassy: 7 Mambilla Drive, Abuja

mailing address: P. O. Box 554, Lagos

telephone: [234] (9) 523-0916/0906/5857/2235/2205

FAX: [234] (9) 523-0353
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Professor George A. OBIOZOR

chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400

FAX: [1] (202) 775-1385

consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York
Disputes - international ICJ ruled in 2002 on the entire Cameroon-Nigeria land and maritime boundary but the parties formed a Joint Border Commission to resolve differences bilaterally and have commenced with demarcation in less-contested sections of the boundary, starting in Lake Chad in the north; following the UN-brokered Greentree Agreement of 12 June 2006, Nigeria, in completion of the 2002 ICJ decision on the Cameroon-Nigerian land boundary, handed sovereignty of the Bakassi peninsula to Cameroon on 14 August; all Nigerian military forces have reportedly withdrawn from the region but Nigeria will continue to maintain a police and administrative presence in the southeastern "transition zone" for a period of up to two years; Nigeria pledges to provide for the resettlement of those Bakassi residents who wish to remain Nigerian citizens; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; a joint task force was established in 2004 that resolved disputes over and redrew the maritime and the 870-km land boundary with Benin on the Okpara River; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
Economic aid - recipient IMF, $250 million (1998)
Economy - overview Oil-rich Nigeria, long hobbled by political instability, corruption, inadequate infrastructure, and poor macroeconomic management, is undertaking some reforms under a new reform-minded administration. Nigeria's former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from its overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides 20% of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 65% of budgetary revenues. The largely subsistence agricultural sector has failed to keep up with rapid population growth - Nigeria is Africa's most populous country - and the country, once a large net exporter of food, now must import food. Following the signing of an IMF stand-by agreement in August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal from the Paris Club and a $1 billion credit from the IMF, both contingent on economic reforms. Nigeria pulled out of its IMF program in April 2002, after failing to meet spending and exchange rate targets, making it ineligible for additional debt forgiveness from the Paris Club. In the last year the government has begun showing the political will to implement the market-oriented reforms urged by the IMF, such as to modernize the banking system, to curb inflation by blocking excessive wage demands, and to resolve regional disputes over the distribution of earnings from the oil industry. In 2003, the government began deregulating fuel prices, announced the privatization of the country's four oil refineries, and instituted the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy, a domestically designed and run program modeled on the IMF's Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility for fiscal and monetary management. GDP rose strongly in 2005, based largely on increased oil exports and high global crude prices. In November 2005, Abuja won Paris Club approval for a historic debt-relief deal that by March 2006 should eliminate $30 billion worth of Nigeria's total $37 billion external debt. The deal first requires that Nigeria repay roughly $12 billion in arrears to its bilateral creditors. Nigeria would then be allowed to buy back its remaining debt stock at a discount. The deal also commits Nigeria to more intensified IMF reviews.
Electricity - consumption 14.46 billion kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports 40 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - production 15.59 billion kWh (2003)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
Environment - current issues soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Exchange rates nairas per US dollar - 132.59 (2005), 132.89 (2004), 129.22 (2003), 120.58 (2002), 111.23 (2001)
Executive branch chief of state: President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 May 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 May 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Federal Executive Council

elections: president is elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 19 April 2003 (next to be held April 2007)

election results: Olusegun OBASANJO elected president; percent of vote - Olusegun OBASANJO (PDP) 61.9%, Muhammadu BUHARI (ANPP) 31.2%, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu OJUKWU (APGA) 3.3%, other 3.6%
Exports 40 million kWh (2003)
Exports $52.16 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports 7.83 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber
Exports - partners US 49.7%, Brazil 10.4%, Spain 7.6% (2005)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 26.9%

industry: 48.7%

services: 24.4% (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6.9% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 10 00 N, 8 00 E
Geography - note the Niger enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
Heliports 1 (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.6%

highest 10%: 40.8% (1996-97)
Illicit drugs a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; safehaven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity; Nigeria has improved some anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in June 2006; Nigeria's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF
Imports 0 kWh (2003)
Imports $25.95 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
Imports - partners China 10.4%, US 7.3%, UK 6.7%, Netherlands 6%, France 5.9%, Germany 4.2% (2005)
Independence 1 October 1960 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 3.8% (2005 est.)
Industries crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel, small commercial ship construction and repair
Infant mortality rate total: 97.14 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 104.05 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 90.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 13.5% (2005 est.)
Irrigated land 2,820 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges appointed by the President); Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government on the advice of the Advisory Judicial Committee)
Labor force 57.21 million (2005 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 70%

industry: 10%

services: 20% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 4,047 km

border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km
Land use arable land: 33.02%

permanent crops: 3.14%

other: 63.84% (2005)
Languages English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani
Legal system based on English common law, Islamic Shariah law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Legislative branch bicameral National Assembly consists of Senate (109 seats - 3 from each state plus 1 from Abuja, members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives (360 seats, members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held 12 April 2003 (next to be held in 2007); House of Representatives - last held 12 April 2003 (next to be held in 2007)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PDP 53.7%, ANPP 27.9%, AD 9.7%; seats by party - PDP 76, ANPP 27, AD 6; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDP 54.5%, ANPP 27.4%, AD 8.8%, other 9.3%; seats by party - PDP 223, ANPP 96, AD 34, other 6; note - one seat is vacant
Life expectancy at birth total population: 47.08 years

male: 46.52 years

female: 47.66 years (2006 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 68%

male: 75.7%

female: 60.6% (2003 est.)
Location Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Merchant marine total: 52 ships (1000 GRT or over) 277,709 GRT/475,414 DWT

by type: cargo 6, chemical tanker 5, combination ore/oil 1, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 36, specialized tanker 2

foreign-owned: 4 (Norway 1, Pakistan 1, Singapore 1, Spain 1)

registered in other countries: 28 (Bahamas 2, Bermuda 11, Cambodia 2, Comoros 2, Panama 7, Poland 1, Seychelles 1, unknown 2) (2006)
Military branches Nigerian Armed Forces (Forces Armees Nigeriennes, FAN): Army, Niger Air Force (2006)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $737.6 million (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.8% (2005 est.)
National holiday Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
Nationality noun: Nigerian(s)

adjective: Nigerian
Natural hazards periodic droughts; flooding
Natural resources natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
Net migration rate 0.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Pipelines condensate 126 km; gas 2,812 km; liquid petroleum gas 125 km; oil 4,278 km; refined products 3,517 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders Alliance for Democracy or AD [Mojisoluwa AKINFENWA]; All Nigeria Peoples' Party or ANPP [Don ETIEBET]; All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [disputed leadership]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Aliyu Habu FARI]; Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Dr. Ahmadu ALI]; Peoples Redemption Party or PRP [Abdulkadir Balarabe MUSA]; Peoples Salvation Party or PSP [Lawal MAITURARE]; United Nigeria Peoples Party or UNPP [disputed leadership]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 131,859,731

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Population below poverty line 60% (2000 est.)
Population growth rate 2.38% (2006 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 83, FM 36, shortwave 11 (2001)
Railways total: 3,505 km

narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge (2005)
Religions Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network has been slow due to faltering efforts at privatization

domestic: the addition of a second fixed-line provider in 2002 resulted in faster growth in this service; wireless telephony has grown rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; four wireless (GSM) service providers operate nationally; the combined growth resulted in a sharp increase in teledensity reported to be over 18% in March 2006

international: country code - 234; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia
Telephones - main lines in use 1,223,300 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 21,571,131 (2006)
Television broadcast stations 3 (the government controls 2 of the broadcasting stations and 15 repeater stations) (2002)
Terrain southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
Total fertility rate 5.49 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate 2.9% (2005 est.)
Waterways 8,600 km (Niger and Benue rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2005)
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