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Turkmenistan (2008)

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TurkmenistanTurkmenistan (2001) (porownaj)
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TurkmenistanTurkmenistan (2007) (porownaj)


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Turkmenistan 2008 roku

 Turkmenistan
Podzial administracyjny 5 provinces (welayatlar, singular - welayat) and 1 independent city*: Ahal Welayaty (Anew), Ashgabat*, Balkan Welayaty (Balkanabat), Dashoguz Welayaty, Lebap Welayaty (Turkmenabat), Mary Welayaty


note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following w parentheses)
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 34.7% (male 900,718/female 866,930)


15-64 years: 60.9% (male 1,537,638/female 1,567,049)


65 years and over: 4.4% (male 97,454/female 127,239) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo cotton, grain; livestock
Lotniska 28 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 22


over 3,047 m: 1


2,438 to 3,047 m: 11


1,524 to 2,437 m: 8


914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 6


1,524 to 2,437 m: 2


under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Terytorium total: 488,100 sq km


land: 488,100 sq km


water: NEGL
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than California
Tlo historyczne Eastern Turkmenistan dla centuries formed part of the Persian province of Khurasan; w medieval times Merv (today known as Mary) was one of the great cities of the Islamic world and an important stop on the Silk Road. Annexed by Rosja between 1865 and 1885, Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic w 1924. It achieved independence upon the dissolution of the USSR w 1991. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves could prove a boon to this underdeveloped country if extraction and delivery projects were to be expanded. The Turkmenistan Government is actively seeking to develop alternative petroleum transportation routes to break Rosja's pipeline monopoly. President dla Life Saparmurat NYYAZOW died w grudzien 2006, and Turkmenistan held its first multi-candidate presidential electoral process w luty 2007. Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW, a former NYYAZOW aide, emerged as the country's new president.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 25.36 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $1.641 billion


expenditures: $1.6 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Ashgabat (Ashkhabad)


geographic coordinates: 37 57 N, 58 23 E


time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat subtropical desert
Linia brzegowa 0 km; note - Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)
Konstytucja adopted 18 maj 1992
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: none


conventional short form: Turkmenistan


local long form: none


local short form: Turkmenistan


former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.17 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $2.4 billion to $5 billion (2001 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Richard E. HOAGLAND


embassy: No. 9 1984 Street (formerly Pushkin Street), Ashgabat, Turkmenistan 744000


mailing address: 7070 Ashgabat Place, Washington, DC 20521-7070


telephone: [993] (12) 35-00-45


FAX: [993] (12) 39-26-14
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Meret Bairamovich ORAZOW


chancery: 2207 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 588-1500


FAX: [1] (202) 588-0697
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje cotton monoculture w Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties dla Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries z Kazachstan commenced w 2005, but Caspian seabed delimitation remains stalled z Azerbejdzan, Iran, and Kazachstan due to Turkmenistan's indecision over how to allocate the sea's waters and seabed
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $28.25 million from the US (2005)
Ekonomia Turkmenistan is a largely desert country z intensive agriculture w irrigated oases and large gas and oil resources. One-half of its irrigated land is planted w cotton; formerly it was the world's 10th-largest producer. Poor harvests w recent years have led to an almost 50% decline w cotton exports. With an authoritarian ex-Communist regime w power and a tribally based social structure, Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to economic reform, hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its inefficient economy. Privatization goals remain limited. From 1998-2005, Turkmenistan suffered from the continued lack of adequate export routes dla natural gas and from obligations on extensive short-term external debt. At the same time, however, total exports rose by an average of roughtly 15% per year from 2003-07, largely because of higher international oil and gas prices. Overall prospects w the near future are discouraging because of widespread internal poverty, a poor educational system, government misuse of oil and gas revenues, and Ashgabat's unwillingness to adopt market-oriented reforms. Turkmenistan's economic statistics are state secrets, and Produkt krajowy brutto and other figures are subject to wide margins of error. In particular, the rate of Produkt krajowy brutto growth is uncertain. President BERDIMUHAMEDOW's election platform included plans to build a gas line to Chiny, to complete the Amu Darya railroad bridge w Lebap province, and to create special border trade zones w southern Balkan province - a hint that the new post-NYYAZOW government will work to create a friendlier foreign investment environment.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 7.602 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 2.918 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 12.05 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Vpadina Akchanaya -81 m; note - Sarygamysh Koli is a lake w northern Turkmenistan z a water level that fluctuates above and below the elevation of Vpadina Akchanaya (the lake has dropped as low as -110 m)


highest point: Gora Ayribaba 3,139 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy contamination of soil and groundwater z agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salination, water logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Turkmen 85%, Uzbek 5%, Rosjan 4%, other 6% (2003)
Kurs waluty Turkmen manat per US$ - 11,250 (2007), 11,100 (2006) official rate


note: w recent years the unofficial rate has hovered around 24,000 to 25,000 Turkmen manats to the dollar
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW (since 14 luty 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW (since 14 luty 2007)


cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held on 11 luty 2007 (next to be held w 2012)


election results: Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW elected president; percent of vote - Gurbanguly BERDIMUHAMEDOW 89.2%
Eksport 2.918 billion kWh (2005)
Eksport $6.33 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 43.35 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 117,800 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Eksport - towary gas, crude oil, petrochemicals, cotton fiber, textiles
Eksport - partnerzy Ukraina 47.7%, Iran 16.4%, Azerbejdzan 5.3% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi green field z a vertical red stripe near the hoist side, containing five tribal guls (designs used w producing carpets) stacked above two crossed olive branches similar to the olive branches on the UN flag; a white crescent moon representing Islam z five white stars representing the regions or velayats of Turkmenistan appear w the upper corner of the field just to the fly side of the red stripe
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 16.7%


industry: 39.2%


services: 44.2% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu IMF estimate: 7%


note: official government statistics are widely regarded as unreliable (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 40 00 N, 60 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; the western and central low-lying desolate portions of the country make up the great Garagum (Kara-Kum) desert, which occupies over 80% of the country; eastern part is plateau
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.6%


highest 10%: 31.7% (1998)
Narkotyki transit country dla Afghan narcotics bound dla Rosjan and Western European markets; transit point dla heroin precursor chemicals bound dla Afganistan
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $4.51 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 2,536 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
Import - partnerzy UAE 15.5%, Turcja 11.1%, Ukraina 9.1%, Rosja 9%, Niemcy 7.8%, Iran 7.6%, Chiny 6.4%, US 4.5% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 27 pazdziernik 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 7% (2007 est.)
Przemysl natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 53.49 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 57.84 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 48.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 11.3% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, ADB, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Nawadniane tereny 18,000 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Sila robocza 2.32 million (2003 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 48.2%


industry: 13.8%


services: 37% (2003 est.)
Granica total: 3,736 km


border countries: Afganistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazachstan 379 km, Uzbekistan 1,621 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 4.51%


permanent crops: 0.14%


other: 95.35% (2005)
Jezyki Turkmen 72%, Rosjan 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
System prawny based on civil law system and Islamic law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza two parliamentary bodies, a People's Council or Halk Maslahaty (supreme legislative body of up to 2,500 delegates, some elected by popular vote and some appointed; meets at least yearly) and a National Assembly or Mejlis (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)


elections: People's Council - last held w kwiecien 2003 (next to be held w grudzien 2008); Mejlis - last held 19 grudzien 2004 (next to be held w grudzien 2008)


election results: Mejlis - DPT 100%; seats by party - DPT 50; note - all 50 elected officials are members of the Democratic Party of Turkmenistan and are preapproved by the president


note: w late 2003, a law was adopted reducing the powers of the Mejlis and making the Halk Maslahaty the supreme legislative organ; the Halk Maslahaty can now legally dissolve the Mejlis, and the president is now able to participate w the Mejlis as its supreme leader; the Mejlis can no longer adopt or amend the constitution or announce referendums or its elections; since the president is both the "Chairman dla Life" of the Halk Maslahaty and the supreme leader of the Mejlis, the 2003 law has the effect of making him the sole authority of both the executive and legislative branches of government
Zywotnosc total population: 68.3 years


male: 65.23 years


female: 71.54 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 98.8%


male: 99.3%


female: 98.3% (1999 est.)
Lokalizacja Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazachstan
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Flota handlowa total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 22,870 GRT/25,801 DWT


by type: cargo 4, combination ore/oil 1, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1 (2007)
Wojsko Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3.4% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 27 pazdziernik (1991)
Narodowosc noun: Turkmen(s)


adjective: Turkmenistani
Naturalne zagrozenia NA
Surowce naturalne petroleum, natural gas, sulfur, salt
Wspolczynnik migracji -3.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 6,441 km; oil 1,361 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT


note: formal opposition parties are outlawed; unofficial, small opposition movements exist underground or w foreign countries; the two most prominent opposition groups-in-exile have been National Democratic Movement of Turkmenistan (NDMT) and the United Democratic Party of Turkmenistan (UDPT); NDMT was led by former Foreign Minister Boris SHIKHMURADOV until his arrest and imprisonment w the wake of the 25 listopad 2002 assassination attempt on President NYYAZOW
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 5,097,028 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 27% (2002)
Przyrost naturalny 1.617% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 16, FM 8, shortwave 2 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 2,440 km


broad gauge: 2,440 km 1.520-m gauge (2006)
Religie Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.039 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.981 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.766 male(s)/female


total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: poorly developed


domestic: Turkmenistan's telecommunications network remains woefully underdeveloped; Turkmentelekom, w cooperation z foreign investors, is planning to upgrade the country's telephone exchanges and install a new digital switching system



international: country code - 993; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; a new telephone link from Ashgabat to Iran has been established; a new exchange w Ashgabat switches international traffic through Turcja via Intelsat; satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat (2006)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 495,000 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 105,000 (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne 4 (government-owned and programmed) (2004)
Uksztaltowanie terenu flat-to-rolling sandy desert z dunes rising to mountains w the south; low mountains along border z Iran; borders Caspian Sea w west
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 3.13 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 60% (2004 est.)
Drogi wodne 1,300 km (Amu Darya and Kara Kum canal important inland waterways) (2006)
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