Main page Compare countries Index countries Index fields


Turkmenistan (2002)

Turkmenistan - select year:
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan (2001) (compare)
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan (2003) (compare)
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan (2004) (compare)
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan (2005) (compare)
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan (2006) (compare)
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan (2007) (compare)
TurkmenistanTurkmenistan (2008) (compare)

Compare with other popular countries

Turkmenistan 2002 year

Administrative divisions 5 provinces (welayatlar, singular - welayat): Ahal Welayaty (Ashgabat), Balkan Welayaty (Balkanabat), Dasoguz Welayaty, Labap Welayaty (Turkmenabat), Mary Welayaty

note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Age structure 0-14 years: 37.3% (male 895,536; female 853,301)

15-64 years: 58.6% (male 1,350,142; female 1,399,879)

65 years and over: 4.1% (male 72,784; female 117,321) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products cotton, grain; livestock
Airports 76 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 13

2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 63

2,438 to 3,047 m: 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

914 to 1,523 m: 10

under 914 m: 41 (2002)
Area total: 488,100 sq km

land: 488,100 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than California
Background Annexed by Russia between 1865 and 1885, Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic in 1925. It achieved its independence upon the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. President NIYAZOV retains absolute control over the country and opposition is not tolerated. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves could prove a boon to this underdeveloped country if extraction and delivery projects can be worked out.
Birth rate 28.27 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $588.6 million

expenditures: $658.2 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.) (1999 est.)
Capital Ashgabat
Climate subtropical desert
Coastline 0 km; note - Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)
Constitution adopted 18 May 1992
Country name conventional long form: none

conventional short form: Turkmenistan

local long form: none

local short form: Turkmenistan

former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
Currency Turkmen manat (TMM)
Death rate 8.92 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $2.3 billion to $5 billion (2001 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Laura E. KENNEDY

embassy: 9 Pushkin Street, Ashgabat, Turkmenistan 774000

mailing address: use embassy street address

telephone: [9] (9312) 35-00-45

FAX: [9] (9312) 39-26-14
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Mered Bairamovich ORAZOV

chancery: 2207 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 588-1500

FAX: [1] (202) 588-0697
Disputes - international Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan wrestle with sharing limited water resources and regional environmental degradation caused by the shrinking of the Aral Sea; multilaterally-accepted Caspian Sea seabed and maritime boundaries have not yet been established in the Caspian - Iran insists on division of Caspian Sea into five equal sectors while Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan have generally agreed upon equidistant seabed boundaries; Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan await ICJ decision to resolve sovereignty dispute over oil fields in the Caspian Sea
Economic aid - recipient $16 million from the US (2001)
Economy - overview Turkmenistan is largely desert country with intensive agriculture in irrigated oases and huge gas (fifth largest reserves in the world) and oil resources. One-half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton, making it the world's tenth largest producer. Until the end of 1993, Turkmenistan had experienced less economic disruption than other former Soviet states because its economy received a boost from higher prices for oil and gas and a sharp increase in hard currency earnings. In 1994, Russia's refusal to export Turkmen gas to hard currency markets and mounting debts of its major customers in the former USSR for gas deliveries contributed to a sharp fall in industrial production and caused the budget to shift from a surplus to a slight deficit. With an authoritarian ex-Communist regime in power and a tribally based social structure, Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to economic reform, hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its inefficient economy. Privatization goals remain limited. In 1998-2001, Turkmenistan has suffered from the continued lack of adequate export routes for natural gas and from obligations on extensive short-term external debt. At the same time, however, total exports have risen sharply because of higher international oil and gas prices. Prospects in the near future are discouraging because of widespread internal poverty, the burden of foreign debt, and the unwillingness of the government to adopt market-oriented reforms. However, Turkmenistan's cooperation with the international community in transporting humanitarian aid to Afghanistan may foreshadow a change in the atmosphere for foreign investment, aid, and technological support. Turkmenistan's economic statistics are state secrets, and GDP and other figures are subject to wide margins of error.
Electricity - consumption 7.708 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 900 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 9.256 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 100%

hydro: 0%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Vpadina Akchanaya -81 m; note - Sarygamysh Koli is a lake in northern Turkmenistan with a water level that fluctuates above and below the elevation of Vpadina Akchanaya (the lake has dropped as low as -110 m)

highest point: Gora Ayribaba 3,139 m
Environment - current issues contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salination, water-logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Turkmen 77%, Uzbek 9.2%, Russian 6.7%, Kazakh 2%, other 5.1% (1995)
Exchange rates Turkmen manats per US dollar - 5,200 (January 2002-January 2000), 5,350 (January 1999), 4,070 (January 1997)
Executive branch chief of state: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October 1990, when the first direct presidential election occurred); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 October 1990, when the first direct presidential election occurred); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

note: NIYAZOV's term in office was extended indefinitely on 28 December 1999 by the Assembly (Majlis) during a session of the People's Council (Halk Maslahaty)

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 21 June 1992 (next to be held NA); note - President NIYAZOV was unanimously approved as president for life by the Assembly on 28 December 1999); deputy chairmen of the cabinet of ministers are appointed by the president

election results: Saparmurat NIYAZOV elected president without opposition; percent of vote - Saparmurat NIYAZOV 99.5%
Exports 900 million kWh (2000)
Exports $2.7 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities gas 33%, oil 30%, cotton fiber 18%, textiles 8% (1999)
Exports - partners Ukraine 27%, Iran 14%, Turkey 11%, Italy 9%, Switzerland 5% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description green field with a vertical red stripe near the hoist side, containing five carpet guls (designs used in producing rugs) stacked above two crossed olive branches similar to the olive branches on the UN flag; a white crescent moon and five white stars appear in the upper corner of the field just to the fly side of the red stripe
GDP purchasing power parity - $21.5 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 27%

industry: 45%

services: 28% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,700 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 10% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 40 00 N, 60 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; the western and central low-lying, desolate portions of the country make up the great Garagum (Kara-Kum) desert, which occupies over 80% of the country; eastern part is plateau
Highways total: 22,000 km

paved: 18,000 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)

unpaved: 4,000 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1996)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3%

highest 10%: 32% (1998) (1998)
Illicit drugs transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; small-scale government-run eradication of illicit crops; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan
Imports 0 kWh (2000)
Imports $2.3 billion c.i.f. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment 60%, foodstuffs 15% (1999)
Imports - partners Turkey 17%, Ukraine 12%, Russia 11%, UAE 8%, France 6% (1999)
Independence 27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing
Infant mortality rate 73.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 10% (2001 est.)
International organization participation AsDB, CCC, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) NA
Irrigated land 18,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Labor force 2.34 million (1996) (1996)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 48%, industry 15%, services 37% (1998 est.)
Land boundaries total: 3,736 km

border countries: Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakhstan 379 km, Uzbekistan 1,621 km
Land use arable land: 3.47%

permanent crops: 0.14%

other: 96.39% (1998 est.)
Languages Turkmen 72%, Russian 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
Legal system based on civil law system
Legislative branch under the 1992 constitution, there are two parliamentary bodies, a unicameral People's Council or Halk Maslahaty (more than 100 seats, some of which are elected by popular vote and some of which are appointed; meets infrequently) and a unicameral Assembly or Majlis (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: People's Council - NA; Assembly - last held 12 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)

election results: Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; note - all 50 elected officials preapproved by President NIYAZOV; most are from the DPT
Life expectancy at birth total population: 61.1 years

male: 57.57 years

female: 64.8 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 98%

male: 99%

female: 97% (1989 est.)
Location Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan
Map references Asia
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total: 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,600 GRT/5,000 DWT

ships by type: petroleum tanker 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Ministry of Defense (Army, Air and Air Defense, Navy, Border Troops, and Internal Troops), National Guard
Military expenditures - dollar figure $90 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.4% (FY99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,206,920 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 979,282 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 48,292 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 27 October (1991)
Nationality noun: Turkmen(s)

adjective: Turkmen
Natural hazards NA
Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulfur, salt
Net migration rate -0.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 250 km; natural gas 4,400 km
Political parties and leaders Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT [Saparmurat NIYAZOV]

note: formal opposition parties are outlawed; unofficial, small opposition movements exist underground or in foreign countries
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 4,688,963 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 34% (2001 est.)
Population growth rate 1.84% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Turkmenbasy
Radio broadcast stations AM 16, FM 8, shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios 1.225 million (1997)
Railways total: 2,440 km

broad gauge: 2,440 km 1.520-m gauge (2001)
Religions Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: poorly developed

domestic: NA

international: linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; a new telephone link from Ashgabat to Iran has been established; a new exchange in Ashgabat switches international traffic through Turkey via Intelsat; satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat
Telephones - main lines in use 363,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 4,300 (1998)
Television broadcast stations 3 (much programming relayed from Russia and Turkey) (1997)
Terrain flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west
Total fertility rate 3.54 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate NA%
Waterways the Amu Darya is an important inland waterway for Turkmenistan
Sitemap: Compare countries listing (map site) | Country listing (map site)
Links: Add to favorites | Information about this website | Stats | Polityka prywatnosci
This page was generated in ##czas## s. Size this page: ##rozmiar_strony## kB.