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Turkmenistan (2003)

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Turkmenistan 2003 roku

 Turkmenistan
Podzial administracyjny 5 provinces (welayatlar, singular - welayat): Ahal Welayaty (Ashgabat), Balkan Welayaty (Balkanabat), Dashoguz Welayaty, Lebap Welayaty (Turkmenabat), Mary Welayaty


note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following w parentheses)
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 36.8% (male 899,954; female 855,293)


15-64 years: 59.2% (male 1,386,606; female 1,438,333)


65 years and over: 4.1% (male 74,958; female 120,400) (2003 est.)
Rolinictwo cotton, grain; livestock
Lotniska 76 (2002)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 13


2,438 to 3,047 m: 9


1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 63


2,438 to 3,047 m: 7


1,524 to 2,437 m: 5


914 to 1,523 m: 10


under 914 m: 41 (2002)
Terytorium total: 488,100 sq km


land: 488,100 sq km


water: 0 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than California
Tlo historyczne Annexed by Rosja between 1865 and 1885, Turkmenistan became a Soviet republic w 1925. It achieved its independence upon the dissolution of the USSR w 1991. President NIYAZOV retains absolute control over the country and opposition is not tolerated. Extensive hydrocarbon/natural gas reserves could prove a boon to this underdeveloped country if extraction and delivery projects can be worked out.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 28.02 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budzet revenues: $588.6 million


expenditures: $658.2 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
Stolica Ashgabat
Klimat subtropical desert
Linia brzegowa 0 km; note - Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)
Konstytucja adopted 18 maj 1992
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: none


conventional short form: Turkmenistan


local long form: none


local short form: Turkmenistan


former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
Waluta Turkmen manat (TMM)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 8.87 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $2.4 billion to $5 billion (2001 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Tracey A. JACOBSON


embassy: 9 Pushkin Street, Ashgabat, Turkmenistan 774000


mailing address: use embassy street address


telephone: [9] (9312) 35-00-45


FAX: [9] (9312) 39-26-14
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Mered Bairamovich ORAZOV


chancery: 2207 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 588-1500


FAX: [1] (202) 588-0697
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje prolonged regional drought creates water-sharing difficulties dla Amu Darya river states; Turkmenistan has not committed to follow either Iran or the other littoral states w the division of the Caspian Sea seabed and water column; ICJ decision expected to resolve dispute z Azerbejdzan over sovereignty over Caspian oilfields; demarcation of land boundary z Kazachstan is underway - maritime boundary not resolved
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $16 million from the US (2001)
Ekonomia Turkmenistan is largely desert country z intensive agriculture w irrigated oases and large gas and oil resources. One-half of its irrigated land is planted w cotton, making it the world's tenth-largest producer. With an authoritarian ex-Communist regime w power and a tribally based social structure, Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to economic reform, hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its inefficient economy. Privatization goals remain limited. In 1998-2003, Turkmenistan suffered from the continued lack of adequate export routes dla natural gas and from obligations on extensive short-term external debt. At the same time, however, total exports rose by 38% w 2003, largely because of higher international oil and gas prices. Overall prospects w the near future are discouraging because of widespread internal poverty, the burden of foreign debt, and the unwillingness of the government to adopt market-oriented reforms. However, Turkmenistan's cooperation z the international community w transporting humanitarian aid to Afganistan may foreshadow a change w the atmosphere dla foreign investment, aid, and technological support. Turkmenistan's economic statistics are state secrets, and Produkt krajowy brutto and other figures are subject to wide margins of error. In any event, Produkt krajowy brutto increased substantially w 2003 because of a strong recovery w agriculture and rapid industrial growth.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 8.509 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 980 million kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - import 20 million kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 10.18 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel: 99.9%


hydro: 0.1%


nuclear: 0%


other: 0% (2001)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Vpadina Akchanaya -81 m; note - Sarygamysh Koli is a lake w northern Turkmenistan z a water level that fluctuates above and below the elevation of Vpadina Akchanaya (the lake has dropped as low as -110 m)


highest point: Gora Ayribaba 3,139 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy contamination of soil and groundwater z agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salination, water-logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Turkmen 77%, Uzbek 9.2%, Rosjan 6.7%, Kazakh 2%, other 5.1% (1995)
Kurs waluty Turkmen manats per US dollar - 5,200 (2002), 5,200 (2001), 5,200 (2000), 5,200 (1999), 4,890.17 (1998); note - the official exchange rate has not varied dla the last four years; the unofficial rate has fluctuated slightly, hovering around 21,000 manats to the dollar
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 pazdziernik 1990, when the first direct presidential election occurred); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President and Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers Saparmurat NIYAZOV (since 27 pazdziernik 1990, when the first direct presidential election occurred); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


note: NIYAZOV's term w office was extended indefinitely on 28 grudzien 1999 by the Assembly (Majlis) during a session of the People's Council (Halk Maslahaty)


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; election last held 21 czerwiec 1992 (next to be held NA); note - President NIYAZOV was unanimously approved as president dla life by the Assembly on 28 grudzien 1999); deputy chairmen of the cabinet of ministers are appointed by the president


election results: Saparmurat NIYAZOV elected president without opposition; percent of vote - Saparmurat NIYAZOV 99.5%
Eksport 980 million kWh (2001)
Eksport $2.97 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Eksport 38.6 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Eksport NA (2001)
Eksport - towary gas 57%, oil 26%, cotton fiber 3%, textiles 2% (2001)
Eksport - partnerzy Ukraina 49.7%, Wlochy 18%, Iran 13.1%, Turcja 6.2% (2002)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi green field z a vertical red stripe near the hoist side, containing five carpet guls (designs used w producing rugs) stacked above two crossed olive branches similar to the olive branches on the UN flag; a white crescent moon and five white stars appear w the upper corner of the field just to the fly side of the red stripe
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $31.34 billion (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 27%


industry: 50%


services: 23% (2001 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $6,700 (2002 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 21.1% (2002 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 40 00 N, 60 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; the western and central low-lying, desolate portions of the country make up the great Garagum (Kara-Kum) desert, which occupies over 80% of the country; eastern part is plateau
Autostrady total: 24,000 km


paved: 19,488 km


unpaved: 4,512 km (1999 est.)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.6%


highest 10%: 31.7% (1998)
Narkotyki transit country dla Afghan narcotics bound dla Rosjan and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy dla domestic consumption; small-scale government-run eradication of illicit crops; transit point dla heroin precursor chemicals bound dla Afganistan
Import 20 million kWh (2001)
Import $2.25 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Import NA (2001)
Import - towary machinery and equipment 60%, foodstuffs 15% (1999)
Import - partnerzy Rosja 19.8%, Turcja 12.8%, Ukraina 11.7%, UAE 10%, US 7.5%, Chiny 6%, Niemcy 5.7%, Iran 4.4% (2002)
Niepodleglosc 27 pazdziernik 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 1% (2002 est.)
Przemysl natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 73.17 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 76.9 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 69.25 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflacja 5% (2002 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji AsDB, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Dostawcy internetu 1
Nawadniane tereny 17,500 sq km (2003 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Sila robocza 2.34 million (1996)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 48%, industry 15%, services 37% (1998 est.)
Granica total: 3,736 km


border countries: Afganistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazachstan 379 km, Uzbekistan 1,621 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 3.47%


permanent crops: 0.14%


other: 96.39% (1998 est.)
Jezyki Turkmen 72%, Rosjan 12%, Uzbek 9%, other 7%
System prawny based on civil law system
Wladza ustawodawcza under the 1992 constitution, there are two parliamentary bodies, a unicameral People's Council or Halk Maslahaty (more than 100 seats, some of which are elected by popular vote and some of which are appointed; meets at least yearly) and a unicameral Assembly or Majlis (50 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)


elections: People's Council - NA; Assembly - last held 12 grudzien 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)


election results: Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; note - all 50 elected officials preapproved by President NIYAZOV; most are from the DPT
Zywotnosc total population: 61.19 years


male: 57.72 years


female: 64.84 years (2003 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 98%


male: 99%


female: 97% (1989 est.)
Lokalizacja Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazachstan
Lokalizacja na mapie Asia
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Flota handlowa total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 6,873 GRT/8,345 DWT


ships by type: combination ore/oil 1, petroleum tanker 1 (2002 est.)
Wojsko Ministry of Defense (Army, Air and Air Defense, Navy, Border Troops, and Internal Troops), National Guard
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $90 million (FY99)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3.4% (FY99)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 1,239,737 (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 1,005,686 (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 18 years of age (2003 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 53,825 (2003 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 27 pazdziernik (1991)
Narodowosc noun: Turkmen(s)


adjective: Turkmen
Naturalne zagrozenia NA
Surowce naturalne petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulfur, salt
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Rurociagi gas 6,634 km; oil 853 km (2003)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Democratic Party of Turkmenistan or DPT [Saparmurat NIYAZOV]


note: formal opposition parties are outlawed; unofficial, small opposition movements exist underground or w foreign countries; the two most prominent opposition groups-in-exile have been Gundogar and Erkin; Gundogar was led by former Foreign Minister Boris SHIKHUMRADOV until his arrest and imprisonment w the wake of the 25 listopad 2002 assassination attempt on President NIYAZOV; Erkin is led by former Foreign Minister Abdy KULIEV and is based out of Moscow
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow NA
Ludnosc 4,775,544 (lipiec 2003 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 34.4% (2001 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.82% (2003 est.)
Porty i stocznie Turkmenbasy
Stacje radiowe AM 16, FM 8, shortwave 2 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 2,440 km


broad gauge: 2,440 km 1.520-m gauge (2002)
Religie Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female


total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: poorly developed


domestic: NA


international: linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; a new telephone link from Ashgabat to Iran has been established; a new exchange w Ashgabat switches international traffic through Turcja via Intelsat; satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 363,000 (1997)
Telefony komorkowe 4,300 (1998)
Stacje telewizyjne 3 (much programming relayed from Rosja and Turcja) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu flat-to-rolling sandy desert z dunes rising to mountains w the south; low mountains along border z Iran; borders Caspian Sea w west
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 3.5 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia NA%
Drogi wodne the Amu Darya is an important inland waterway dla Turkmenistan, as is the man-made Kara Kum canal
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