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Libya (2008)

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Libya 2008 year

Administrative divisions 25 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ajdabiya, Al 'Aziziyah, Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jufrah, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, An Nuqat al Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Misratah, Murzuq, Sabha, Sawfajjin, Surt, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Yafran, Zlitan; note - the 25 municipalities may have been replaced by 13 regions
Age structure 0-14 years: 33.4% (male 1,029,096/female 985,606)

15-64 years: 62.4% (male 1,940,287/female 1,827,429)

65 years and over: 4.2% (male 124,892/female 129,604) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle
Airports 141 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 60

over 3,047 m: 23

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 23

914 to 1,523 m: 6

under 914 m: 2 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 81

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 15

914 to 1,523 m: 41

under 914 m: 18 (2007)
Area total: 1,759,540 sq km

land: 1,759,540 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Alaska
Background The Italians supplanted the Ottoman Turks from the area around Tripoli in 1911 and did not relinquish their hold until 1943 when defeated in World War II. Libya then passed to UN administration and achieved independence in 1951. Following a 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI began to espouse his own political system, the Third Universal Theory. The system is a combination of socialism and Islam derived in part from tribal practices and is supposed to be implemented by the Libyan people themselves in a unique form of "direct democracy." QADHAFI has always seen himself as a revolutionary and visionary leader. He used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism. In addition, beginning in 1973, he engaged in military operations in northern Chad's Aozou Strip - to gain access to minerals and to use as a base of influence in Chadian politics - but was forced to retreat in 1987. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically following the downing of Pan AM Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. During the 1990s, QADHAFI began to rebuild his relationships with Europe. UN sanctions were suspended in April 1999 and finally lifted in September 2003 after Libya accepted responsibility for the Lockerbie bombing. In December 2003, Libya announced that it had agreed to reveal and end its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction and to renounce terrorism, and QADHAFI has made significant strides in normalizing relations with western nations since then. He has received various Western European leaders as well as many working-level and commercial delegations, and made his first trip to Western Europe in 15 years when he traveled to Brussels in April 2004. Libya has responded in good faith to legal cases brought against it in US courts for terrorist acts that predate its renunciation of violence. Claims for compensation in the Lockerbie bombing, LaBelle disco bombing, and UTA 772 bombing cases are ongoing. The US rescinded Libya's designation as a state sponsor of terrorism in June 2006. In late 2007, Libya was elected by the General Assembly to a nonpermanent seat on the United Nations Security Council for the 2008-2009 term.
Birth rate 26.09 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $39.62 billion

expenditures: $19.51 billion (2007 est.)
Capital name: Tripoli

geographic coordinates: 32 53 N, 13 10 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
Coastline 1,770 km
Constitution none; note - following the September 1969 military overthrow of the Libyan government, the Revolutionary Command Council replaced the existing constitution with the Constitutional Proclamation in December 1969; in March 1977, Libya adopted the Declaration of the Establishment of the People's Authority
Country name conventional long form: Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

conventional short form: Libya

local long form: Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishtirakiyah al Uzma

local short form: none
Death rate 3.47 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $4.837 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires J. Christopher Stevens

embassy: Corinthia Bab Africa Hotel, Souq At-Tlat Al-Qadim, Tripoli

mailing address: US Embassy, 8850 Tripoli Place, Washington, DC 20521-8850

telephone: [218] 21-335-1848
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Ali Suleiman AUJALI

chancery: 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Suite 705, Washington, DC 20037

telephone: [1] (202) 944-9601

FAX: [1] (202) 944-9060
Disputes - international Libya has claimed more than 32,000 sq km in southeastern Algeria and about 25,000 sq km in the Tommo region of Niger in a currently dormant dispute; various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Libya
Economic aid - recipient ODA, $24.44 million (2005 est.)
Economy - overview The Libyan economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which contribute about 95% of export earnings, about one-quarter of GDP, and 60% of public sector wages. Substantial revenues from the energy sector coupled with a small population give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, but little of this income flows down to the lower orders of society. Libyan officials in the past five years have made progress on economic reforms as part of a broader campaign to reintegrate the country into the international fold. This effort picked up steam after UN sanctions were lifted in September 2003 and as Libya announced in December 2003 that it would abandon programs to build weapons of mass destruction. Almost all US unilateral sanctions against Libya were removed in April 2004, helping Libya attract more foreign direct investment, mostly in the energy sector. Libyan oil and gas licensing rounds continue to draw high international interest; the National Oil Company set a goal of nearly doubling oil production to 3 million bbl/day by 2015. Libya faces a long road ahead in liberalizing the socialist-oriented economy, but initial steps - including applying for WTO membership, reducing some subsidies, and announcing plans for privatization - are laying the groundwork for a transition to a more market-based economy. The non-oil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for more than 20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include the production of petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit agricultural output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food. Libya's primary agricultural water source remains the Great Manmade River Project, but significant resources are being invested in desalinization research to meet growing water demands.
Electricity - consumption 18.18 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 21.15 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m

highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m
Environment - current issues desertification; very limited natural fresh water resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups Berber and Arab 97%, other 3% (includes Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians)
Exchange rates Libyan dinars per US dollar - 1.2604 (2007), 1.3108 (2006), 1.3084 (2005), 1.305 (2004), 1.2929 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969); note - holds no official title, but is de facto chief of state

head of government: Secretary of the General People's Committee (Prime Minister) al-Baghdadi Ali al-MAHMUDI (since 5 March 2006)

cabinet: General People's Committee established by the General People's Congress

elections: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of people's committees; head of government elected by the General People's Congress; election last held March 2006 (next to be held NA)

election results: NA
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $36.37 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 5.246 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 1.326 million bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas, chemicals
Exports - partners Italy 36.7%, Germany 14.3%, Spain 8.7%, US 6.1%, France 5.6%, Turkey 5.3% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state religion)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 2.1%

industry: 81.7%

services: 16.2% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.4% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 25 00 N, 17 00 E
Geography - note more than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert
Heliports 2 (2007)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 0 kWh (2005)
Imports $15.35 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 1,233 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities machinery, semi-finished goods, food, transport equipment, consumer products
Imports - partners Italy 18.9%, Germany 7.9%, China 7.5%, Tunisia 6.3%, France 5.8%, Turkey 5.2%, US 4.7%, South Korea 4.3%, UK 4% (2006)
Independence 24 December 1951 (from UN trusteeship)
Industrial production growth rate 5.6% (2007 est.)
Industries petroleum, iron and steel, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
Infant mortality rate total: 22.82 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 25.07 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 20.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.3% (2007 est.)
International organization participation ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Irrigated land 4,700 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court
Labor force 1.82 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 17%

industry: 23%

services: 59% (2004 est.)
Land boundaries total: 4,348 km

border countries: Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,115 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km
Land use arable land: 1.03%

permanent crops: 0.19%

other: 98.78% (2005)
Languages Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major cities
Legal system based on Italian and French civil law systems and Islamic law; separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral General People's Congress (approximately 2,700 seats; members elected indirectly through a hierarchy of people's committees)
Life expectancy at birth total population: 76.88 years

male: 74.64 years

female: 79.23 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 82.6%

male: 92.4%

female: 72% (2003 est.)
Location Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

note: Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees, 30 minutes north

exclusive fishing zone: 62 nm
Merchant marine total: 17 ships (1000 GRT or over) 67,200 GRT/85,931 DWT

by type: cargo 11, liquefied gas 3, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 3 (Kuwait 1, Norway 1, Syria 1)

registered in other countries: 4 (Malta 3, Tunisia 1) (2007)
Military branches Armed Peoples on Duty (APOD, Army), Libyan Arab Navy, Libyan Arab Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Jamahiriya al-Arabia al-Libyya, LAAF) (2007)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.9% (2005 est.)
National holiday Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)
Nationality noun: Libyan(s)

adjective: Libyan
Natural hazards hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms
Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, gypsum
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines condensate 882 km; gas 3,425 km; oil 6,956 km (2007)
Political parties and leaders none
Political pressure groups and leaders various Arab nationalist movements with almost negligible memberships may be functioning clandestinely, as well as some Islamic elements; an anti-QADHAFI Libyan exile movement exists, primarily based in London, but has little influence
Population 6,036,914

note: includes 166,510 non-nationals (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 7.4% (2005 est.)
Population growth rate 2.262% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 16, FM 3, shortwave 3 (2001)
Railways 0 km

note: Libya has announced plans to build seven lines totaling 2,757 km of 1.435-m gauge track (2006)
Religions Sunni Muslim 97%, other 3%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.044 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.062 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.964 male(s)/female

total population: 1.052 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Telephone system general assessment: telecommunications system is being modernized; mobile cellular telephone system became operational in 1996; combined fixed line and mobile telephone density reached 75 telephones per 100 persons in 2006

domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, cellular, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations

international: country code - 218; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cables to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (1999)
Telephones - main lines in use 483,000 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 3.928 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 12 (plus 1 repeater) (1999)
Terrain mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
Total fertility rate 3.21 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 30% (2004 est.)
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