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Libya (2004)

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Libya 2004 year

Administrative divisions 25 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ajdabiya, Al 'Aziziyah, Al Fatih, Al Jabal al Akhdar, Al Jufrah, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, An Nuqat al Khams, Ash Shati', Awbari, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Misratah, Murzuq, Sabha, Sawfajjin, Surt, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq, Yafran, Zlitan; note - the 25 municipalities may have been replaced by 13 regions
Age structure 0-14 years: 34.2% (male 983,050; female 941,603)

15-64 years: 61.7% (male 1,794,396; female 1,679,828)

65 years and over: 4.1% (male 113,391; female 119,317) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products wheat, barley, olives, dates, citrus, vegetables, peanuts, soybeans; cattle
Airports 140 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 59

over 3,047 m: 23

2,438 to 3,047 m: 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 23

914 to 1,523 m: 5

under 914 m: 2 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 80

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

914 to 1,523 m: 41

under 914 m: 18 (2004 est.)
Area total: 1,759,540 sq km

land: 1,759,540 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Alaska
Background From the earliest days of his rule following his 1969 military coup, Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI has espoused his own political system, the Third Universal Theory. The system is a combination of socialism and Islam derived in part from tribal practices and is supposed to be implemented by the Libyan people themselves in a unique form of "direct democracy." QADHAFI has always seen himself as a revolutionary and visionary leader. He used oil funds during the 1970s and 1980s to promote his ideology outside Libya, supporting subversives and terrorists abroad to hasten the end of Marxism and capitalism. In addition, beginning in 1973, he engaged in military operations in northern Chad's Aozou Strip - to gain access to minerals and to use as a base of influence in Chadian politics - but was forced to retreat in 1987. UN sanctions in 1992 isolated QADHAFI politically following the downing of Pan AM Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. Libyan support for terrorism appears to have decreased after the sanction imposition. During the 1990s, QADHAFI also began to rebuild his relationships with Europe. UN sanctions were suspended in April 1999 and finally lifted in September 2003 after Libya resolved the Lockerbie case. In December 2003, Libya announced that it had agreed to reveal and end its programs to develop weapons of mass destruction, and QADHAFI has made significant strides in normalizing relations with western nations since then. He has received various Western European leaders as well as many working-level and commercial delegations, and made his first trip to Western Europe in 15 years when he traveled to Brussels in April 2004. QADHAFI also finally resolved in 2004 several outstanding cases against his government for terrorist activities in the 1980s by paying compensation to the families of victims of the UTA and La Belle disco bombings.
Birth rate 27.17 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $10.28 billion

expenditures: $7.86 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Capital Tripoli
Climate Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior
Coastline 1,770 km
Constitution 11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977
Country name conventional long form: Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

conventional short form: Libya

local long form: Al Jumahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash Shabiyah al Ishtirakiyah al Uzma

local short form: none
Currency Libyan dinar (LYD)
Death rate 3.48 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $4.194 billion (2003 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US the US suspended all embassy activities in Tripoli in May 1980, resumed embassy activities in February 2004 under the protective power of the US interests section of the Belgian Embassy in Tripoli, then opened a Liaison Office in Tripoli in June 2004
Diplomatic representation in the US Libya does not have an embassy in the US but maintains an interest section under the protective power of the United Arab Emirates Embassy in the US
Disputes - international Libya has claimed more than 32,000 sq km in southeastern Algeria and about 25,000 sq km in Niger in currently dormant disputes; various Chadian rebels from the Aozou region reside in southern Libya
Economic aid - recipient $15 million (2000)
Economy - overview The Libyan economy depends primarily upon revenues from the oil sector, which contribute practically all export earnings and about one-quarter of GDP. These oil revenues and a small population give Libya one of the highest per capita GDPs in Africa, but little of this income flows down to the lower orders of society. Libyan officials in the past three years have made progress on economic reforms as part of a broader campaign to reintegrate the country into the international fold. This effort picked up steam after UN sanctions were lifted in September 2003 and as Libya announced in December 2003 that it would abandon programs to build weapons of mass destruction. Libya faces a long road ahead in liberalizing the socialist-oriented economy, but initial steps - including applying for WTO membership, reducing some subsidies, and announcing plans for privatization - are laying the groundwork for a transition to a more market-based economy. The non-oil manufacturing and construction sectors, which account for about 20% of GDP, have expanded from processing mostly agricultural products to include the production of petrochemicals, iron, steel, and aluminum. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit agricultural output, and Libya imports about 75% of its food.
Electricity - consumption 18.77 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 20.18 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Sabkhat Ghuzayyil -47 m

highest point: Bikku Bitti 2,267 m
Environment - current issues desertification; very limited natural fresh water resources; the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water from large aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
Ethnic groups Berber and Arab 97%, Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, Tunisians
Exchange rates Libyan dinars per US dollar - 1.2929 (2003), 1.2707 (2002), 0.6051 (2001), 0.4994 (2000), 0.3936 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI (since 1 September 1969); note - holds no official title, but is de facto chief of state

head of government: Secretary of the General People's Committee (Prime Minister) Shukri Muhammad GHANIM (since 14 June 2003)

cabinet: General People's Committee established by the General People's Congress

elections: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of people's committees; head of government elected by the General People's Congress; election last held 2 March 2000 (next to be held NA)

election results: NA
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $14.32 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports 770 million cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities crude oil, refined petroleum products (1999)
Exports - partners Italy 38.8%, Spain 13.4%, Germany 13.4%, Turkey 7.1%, France 6.1% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state religion)
GDP purchasing power parity - $35 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 8.6%

industry: 46.1%

services: 45.3% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $6,400 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.2% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 25 00 N, 17 00 E
Geography - note more than 90% of the country is desert or semidesert
Heliports 1 (2003 est.)
Highways total: 83,200 km

paved: 47,590 km

unpaved: 35,610 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $6.282 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery, transport equipment, food, manufactured goods (1999)
Imports - partners Italy 27.8%, Germany 10.5%, Tunisia 7.6%, UK 7.1%, France 6%, Turkey 4.6% (2003)
Independence 24 December 1951 (from Italy)
Industrial production growth rate NA
Industries petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement
Infant mortality rate total: 25.7 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 28.04 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 23.26 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.8% (2003 est.)
Irrigated land 4,700 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court
Labor force 1.51 million (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 17%, industry 29%, services 54% (1997 est.)
Land boundaries total: 4,348 km

border countries: Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt 1,115 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km
Land use arable land: 1.03%

permanent crops: 0.19%

other: 98.78% (2001)
Languages Arabic, Italian, English, all are widely understood in the major cities
Legal system based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law; separate religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral General People's Congress (NA seats; members elected indirectly through a hierarchy of people's committees)
Life expectancy at birth total population: 76.28 years

male: 74.1 years

female: 78.58 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 82.6%

male: 92.4%

female: 72% (2003 est.)
Location Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Tunisia
Map references Africa
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

note: Gulf of Sidra closing line - 32 degrees, 30 minutes north
Merchant marine total: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 129,627 GRT/105,110 DWT

by type: cargo 8, liquefied gas 3, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 4, short-sea/passenger 4

foreign-owned: Algeria 1, Kuwait 1 (2004 est.)
Military branches Armed Peoples on Duty (Army), Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command
Military expenditures - dollar figure $1.3 billion (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.9% (FY99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,588,533 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 938,196 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 61,828 (2004 est.)
National holiday Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)
Nationality noun: Libyan(s)

adjective: Libyan
Natural hazards hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting one to four days in spring and fall; dust storms, sandstorms
Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, gypsum
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Pipelines condensate 225 km; gas 3,611 km; oil 7,252 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders none
Political pressure groups and leaders various Arab nationalist movements with almost negligible memberships may be functioning clandestinely, as well as some Islamic elements; an anti-QADHAFI Libyan exile movement exists, primarily based in London, but has little influence
Population 5,631,585

note: includes 166,510 non-nationals (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line NA
Population growth rate 2.37% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Al Khums, Banghazi, Darnah, Marsa al Burayqah, Misratah, Ra's Lanuf, Tobruk, Tripoli, Zuwarah
Radio broadcast stations AM 16, FM 3, shortwave 3 (2002)
Railways 0 km

note: Libya is working on 7 lines totaling 2,757 km of 1.435-m gauge track; it hopes to open a 191 km line by the end of 2004 (2003)
Religions Sunni Muslim 97%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female

total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Telephone system general assessment: telecommunications system is being modernized; mobile cellular telephone system became operational in 1996

domestic: microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, cellular, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations

international: country code - 218; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cables to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (1999)
Telephones - main lines in use 750,000 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular 100,000 (2003)
Television broadcast stations 12 (plus one low-power repeater) (1999)
Terrain mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions
Total fertility rate 3.42 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 30% (2001)
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