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Haiti (2008)

Haiti - wybierz rok:
HaitiHaiti (2001) (porownaj)
HaitiHaiti (2002) (porownaj)
HaitiHaiti (2003) (porownaj)
HaitiHaiti (2004) (porownaj)
HaitiHaiti (2005) (porownaj)
HaitiHaiti (2006) (porownaj)
HaitiHaiti (2007) (porownaj)


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Haiti 2008 roku

 Haiti
Podzial administracyjny 10 departments (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand 'Anse, Nippes, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 42.1% (male 1,846,175/female 1,817,082)


15-64 years: 54.4% (male 2,313,542/female 2,426,326)


65 years and over: 3.5% (male 134,580/female 168,792) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum; wood
Lotniska 14 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 4


2,438 to 3,047 m: 1


914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 10


914 to 1,523 m: 1


under 914 m: 9 (2007)
Terytorium total: 27,750 sq km


land: 27,560 sq km


water: 190 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Maryland
Tlo historyczne The native Taino Amerindians - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when it was discovered by COLUMBUS w 1492 - were virtually annihilated by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola, and w 1697, Hiszpania ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest w the Caribbean, but only through the heavy importation of African slaves and considerable environmental degradation. In the late 18th century, Haiti's nearly half million slaves revolted under Toussaint L'OUVERTURE. After a prolonged struggle, Haiti became the first black republic to declare its independence w 1804. The poorest country w the Western Hemisphere, Haiti has been plagued by political violence dla most of its history. After an armed rebellion led to the departure of President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE w luty 2004, an interim government took office to organize new elections under the auspices of the United Nations Stabilization Mission w Haiti (MINUSTAH). Continued violence and technical delays prompted repeated postponements, but Haiti finally did inaugurate a democratically elected president and parliament w maj of 2006.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 35.87 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $918.6 million


expenditures: $1.036 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Port-au-Prince


geographic coordinates: 18 32 N, 72 20 W


time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday w kwiecien; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat tropical; semiarid where mountains w east cut off trade winds
Linia brzegowa 1,771 km
Konstytucja approved marzec 1987; suspended czerwiec 1988 z most articles reinstated marzec 1989; constitutional government ousted w a military coup w wrzesien 1991, although w pazdziernik 1991, military government claimed to be observing the constitution; returned to constitutional rule w pazdziernik 1994; constitution, while technically w force between 2004-2006, was not enforced; returned to constitutional rule w maj 2006
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Haiti


conventional short form: Haiti


local long form: Republique d'Haiti/Repiblik d' Ayiti


local short form: Haiti/Ayiti
Wspolczynnik zgonow 10.4 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $1.248 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Janet A. SANDERSON


embassy: 5 Harry S Truman Boulevard, Bicentenaire-Port-au-Prince


mailing address: P. O. Box 1761, Port-au-Prince


telephone: [509] 222-0200


FAX: [509] 223-9038
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond JOSEPH


chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090


FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215


consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, San Juan (Portoryko)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje since 2004, about 8,000 peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission w Haiti (MINUSTAH) maintain civil order w Haiti; despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians cross into the Republika Dominikanska and sail to neighboring countries; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $515 million (2005 est.)
Ekonomia Haiti is the poorest country w the Western Hemisphere, z 80% of the population living under the poverty line and 54% w abject poverty. Two-thirds of all Haitians depend on the agricultural sector, mainly small-scale subsistence farming, and remain vulnerable to damage from frequent natural disasters, exacerbated by the country's widespread deforestation. A macroeconomic program developed w 2005 z the help of the International Monetary Fund helped the economy grow 3.5% w 2007, the highest growth rate since 1999. US economic engagement under the Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement (HOPE) Act, passed w grudzien 2006, has boosted the garment and automotive parts exports and investment by providing tariff-free access to the US. Haiti suffers from higher inflation than similar low-income countries, a lack of investment due to insecurity and limited infrastructure, and a severe trade deficit. In 2005, Haiti paid its arrears to the Swiat Bank, paving the way dla reengagement z the Bank. The government relies on formal international economic assistance dla fiscal sustainability. Remittances are the primary source of foreign exchange, equaling nearly a quarter of Produkt krajowy brutto and over double the total dla exports.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 322 million kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 535 million kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m


highest point: Chaine de la Selle 2,680 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared dla agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection


signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes
Grupy etniczne black 95%, mulatto and white 5%
Kurs waluty gourdes per US dollar - 37.138 (2007), 40.232 (2006), 40.449 (2005), 38.352 (2004), 42.367 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Rene PREVAL (since 14 maj 2006)


head of government: Prime Minister Jacques-Edouard ALEXIS (since 30 maj 2006)


cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister w consultation z the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 7 luty 2006 (next to be held w 2011); prime minister appointed by the president, ratified by the National Assembly


election results: Rene PREVAL elected president; percent of vote - Rene PREVAL 51%
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $554.8 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 0 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary apparel, manufactures, oils, cocoa, mangoes, coffee
Eksport - partnerzy US 79.8%, Republika Dominikanska 7.6%, Kanada 3% (2006)
Rok podatkowy 1 pazdziernik - 30 wrzesien
Opis flagi two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red z a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 28%


industry: 20%


services: 52% (2004 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 3.5% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 19 00 N, 72 25 W
Polozenie geograficzne shares island of Hispaniola z Republika Dominikanska (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Republika Dominikanska)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 0.7%


highest 10%: 47.7% (2001)
Narkotyki Caribbean transshipment point dla cocaine en route to the US and Europe; substantial bulk cash smuggling activity; Kolumbian narcotics traffickers favor Haiti dla illicit financial transactions; pervasive corruption; significant consumer of cannabis
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $1.844 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 11,840 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary food, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, raw materials
Import - partnerzy US 46.5%, Antyle Holenderskie 11.9%, Brazylia 3.8% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 1 styczen 1804 (from Francja)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 2.5% (2007 est.)
Przemysl sugar refining, flour milling, textiles, cement, light assembly based on imported parts
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 63.83 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 68.45 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 59.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 8.9% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACCT, ACP, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OIF, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 920 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court or Cour de Cassation
Sila robocza 3.6 million


note: shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (1995)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 66%


industry: 9%


services: 25% (1995)
Granica total: 360 km


border countries: Republika Dominikanska 360 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 28.11%


permanent crops: 11.53%


other: 60.36% (2005)
Jezyki French (official), Creole (official)
System prawny based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale consists of the Senate (30 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies (99 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - w reestablishing the Senate, the candidate w each department receiving the most votes w the last election serves six years, the candidate z the second most votes serves four years, and the candidate z the third most votes serves two years


elections: Senate - last held 21 kwiecien 2006 z run-off elections on 3 grudzien 2006 (next regular election, dla one third of seats, to be held by styczen 2008 but will probably be postponed); Chamber of Deputies - last held 21 kwiecien 2006 z run-off elections on 3 grudzien 2006 and 29 kwiecien 2007 (next regular election to be held w 2010)


election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - L'ESPWA 11, FUSION 5, OPL 4, FL 3, LAAA 2, UNCRH 2, PONT 2, ALYANS 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - L'ESPWA 23, FUSION 17, FRN 12, OPL 10, ALYANS 10, LAAA 5, MPH 3, MOCHRENA 3, other 10; results dla six other seats contested on 3 grudzien 2006 remain unknown
Zywotnosc total population: 57.03 years


male: 55.35 years


female: 58.75 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 52.9%


male: 54.8%


female: 51.2% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Ocean Atlantycki, west of the Republika Dominikanska
Lokalizacja na mapie Central America and the Caribbean
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 12 nm


contiguous zone: 24 nm


exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
Wojsko no regular military forces - small coast guard; the regular Haitian Armed Forces (FAdH) - Army, Navy, and Air Force - have been demobilized but still exist on paper unless they are constitutionally abolished (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 0.4% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 1 styczen (1804)
Narodowosc noun: Haitian(s)


adjective: Haitian
Naturalne zagrozenia lies w the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from czerwiec to pazdziernik; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts
Surowce naturalne bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Artibonite w Action or LAAA [Youri LATORTUE]; Assembly of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Leslie MANIGAT]; Convention dla Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]; Cooperative Action to Build Haiti or KONBA [Evans LESCOUFALIR]; Democratic Alliance or ALYANS [Evans PAUL] (coalition composed of KID and PPRH); Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative dla the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]; For Us All or PONT [Jean-Marie CHERESTAL]; Front dla Hope or L'ESPWA [Rene PREVAL] (alliance of ESKAMP, PLB, and grass-roots organizations Grand-Anse Resistance Committee, the Central Plateau Peasants' Group, and Kombit Sudest); Haitian Christian Democratic Party or PDCH [Osner FEVRY and Marie-Denise CLAUDE]; Haitian Democratic and Reform Movement or MODEREH [Dany TOUSSAINT and Pierre Soncon PRINCE]; Heads Together or Tet-Ansanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]; Independent Movement dla National Reconciliation or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]; Justice dla Peace and National Development or JPDN [Rigaud DUPLAN]; Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Rudy HERIVEAUX]; Liberal Party of Haiti or PLH [Gehy MICHEL]; Merging of Haitian Social Democratic Parties or FUSION or FPSDH [Serge GILLES] (coalition of Ayiti Capable, Haitian National Revolutionary Party, and National Congress of Democratic Movements); Mobilization dla Haiti's Development or MPH [Samir MOURRA]; Mobilization dla National Development or MDN [Hubert de RONCERAY]; Movement dla National Reconstruction or MRN [Jean Henold BUTEAU]; Movement dla the Installation of Democracy w Haiti or MIDH [Marc BAZIN]; National Christian Union dla the Reconstruction of Haiti or UNCRH [Marie Claude GERMAIN]; National Front dla the Reconstruction of Haiti or FRN [Guy PHILIPPE]; New Christian Movement dla a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]; Open the Gate Party or PLB [Anes LUBIN]; Popular Party dla the Renewal of Haiti or PPRH [Claude ROMAIN]; Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Edgard LEBLANC]; Union of Nationalist and Progressive Haitians or UNITE [Edouard FRANCISQUE]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Autonomous Organizations of Haitian Workers or CATH [Fignole ST-CYR]; Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH; Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS; General Organization of Independent Haitian Workers [Patrick NUMAS]; Grand-Anse Resistance Committee, or KOREGA; National Popular Assembly or APN; Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP [Chavannes JEAN-BAPTISTE]; Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP; Roman Catholic Church; Protestant Federation of Haiti
Ludnosc 8,706,497


note: estimates dla this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result w lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes w the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 80% (2003 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 2.453% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 41, FM 26, shortwave 0 (1999)
Religie Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3%


note: roughly half of the population practices voodoo
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.016 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 0.954 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.797 male(s)/female


total population: 0.973 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: domestic facilities barely adequate; international facilities slightly better; telephone density w Haiti remains the lowest w the Latin American and Caribbean region


domestic: coaxial cable and microwave radio relay trunk service; combined fixed and mobile-cellular teledensity is about 8 per 100 persons


international: country code - 509; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 145,300 (2005)
Telefony komorkowe 500,200 (2005)
Stacje telewizyjne 2 (plus a cable TV service) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly rough and mountainous
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 4.86 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia widespread unemployment and underemployment; more than two-thirds of the labor force do not have formal jobs (2002 est.)
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