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Haiti (2004)

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Haiti 2004 year

Administrative divisions 9 departments (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand 'Anse, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est
Age structure 0-14 years: 42.2% (male 1,646,216; female 1,583,294)

15-64 years: 54.1% (male 2,018,914; female 2,124,287)

65 years and over: 3.7% (male 133,241; female 150,214) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum, wood
Airports 12 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 9

914 to 1,523 m: 4

under 914 m: 5 (2004 est.)
Area total: 27,750 sq km

land: 27,560 sq km

water: 190 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maryland
Background The native Arawak Amerindians - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when it was discovered by Columbus in 1492 - were virtually annihilated by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola, and in 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island - Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean, but only through the heavy importation of African slaves and considerable environmental degradation. In the late 18th century, Haiti's nearly half million slaves revolted under Toussaint L'OUVERTURE and after a prolonged struggle, became the first black republic to declare its independence in 1804. Haiti has been plagued by political violence for most of its history. It is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere.
Birth rate 33.76 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $231.6 million

expenditures: $366.7 million, including capital expenditures of NA (2003 est.)
Capital Port-au-Prince
Climate tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds
Coastline 1,771 km
Constitution approved March 1987; suspended June 1988 with most articles reinstated March 1989; in October 1991 government claimed to be observing the constitution; returned to constitutional rule in October 1994
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Haiti

conventional short form: Haiti

local long form: Republique d'Haiti

local short form: Haiti
Currency gourde (HTG)
Death rate 13.21 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $1.2 billion (1999)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador James B. FOLEY

embassy: 5 Harry S Truman Boulevard, Port-au-Prince

mailing address: P. O. Box 1761, Port-au-Prince

telephone: [509] 222-0354, 222-0269, 222-0200, 222-0327

FAX: [509] 223-1641 or 222-0200 ext 460
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Charge d'Affaires Raymond JOSEPH (as of November 2004)

chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090

FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
Disputes - international despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians fleeing economic privation and civil unrest continue to cross into Dominican Republic and to sail to neighboring countries; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island
Economic aid - recipient $120 million (FY02)
Economy - overview In this poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, 80% of the population lives in abject poverty. Two-thirds of all Haitians depend on the agriculture sector, which consists mainly of small-scale subsistence farming. Following legislative elections in May 2000, fraught with irregularities, international donors - including the US and EU - suspended almost all aid to Haiti. The economy shrank an estimated 1.2% in 2001 and an estimated 0.9% in 2002. Suspended aid and loan disbursements totaled more than $500 million at the start of 2003. Haiti also suffers from rampant inflation, a lack of investment, and a severe trade deficit. The resumption of aid flows from all donors will alleviate but not end the nation's bitter economic problems. Extensive civil strife in early 2004, marked by the flight of President ARISTIDE, further impoverished Haiti.
Electricity - consumption 539.4 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 580 million kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Chaine de la Selle 2,680 m
Environment - current issues extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes
Ethnic groups black 95%, mulatto and white 5%
Exchange rates gourdes per US dollar - 40.5 (2003), 29.2505 (2002), 24.4291 (2001), 21.1707 (2000), 16.9379 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: Interim President Boniface ALEXANDRE (since 29 February 2004)

note: Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE resigned as president on 29 February 2004; ALEXANDRE, as Chief of the Supreme Court, constitutionally succeeded Aristide

head of government: Interim Prime Minister Gerald LATORTUE (since 12 March 2004), chosen by extraconstitutional Council of Eminent Persons representing cross-section of political and civic interests

cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 26 November 2000 (next to be held in November 2005); prime minister appointed by the president, ratified by the National Assembly

election results: Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE elected president; percent of vote - Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE 92%
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $321 million f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities manufactures, coffee, oils, cocoa
Exports - partners US 83.8%, Dominican Republic 6.5%, Canada 3.2% (2003)
Fiscal year 1 October - 30 September
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength)
GDP purchasing power parity - $12.3 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 30%

industry: 20%

services: 50% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $1,600 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 0% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 19 00 N, 72 25 W
Geography - note shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)
Highways total: 4,160 km

paved: 1,011 km

unpaved: 3,149 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Illicit drugs major Caribbean transshipment point for cocaine en route to the US and Europe; substantial money-laundering activity; Colombian narcotics traffickers favor Haiti for illicit financial transactions; pervasive corruption
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $1.028 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities food, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, raw materials
Imports - partners US 53.5%, Dominican Republic 5.9%, Colombia 2.9% (2003)
Independence 1 January 1804 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate NA
Industries sugar refining, flour milling, textiles, cement, light assembly industries based on imported parts
Infant mortality rate total: 74.38 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 79.83 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 68.65 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 37.8% (2003 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, Caricom, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, MIGA, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Irrigated land 750 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Cour de Cassation
Labor force 3.6 million

note: shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (1995)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 66%, industry 9%, services 25%
Land boundaries total: 360 km

border countries: Dominican Republic 360 km
Land use arable land: 28.3%

permanent crops: 11.61%

other: 60.09% (2001)
Languages French (official), Creole (official)
Legal system based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale consists of the Senate (27 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies (83 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - the National Assembly stopped functioning in January 2004 when the terms of all Deputies and two-thirds of sitting Senators expired; no replacements have been elected; the Prime Minister is currently ruling by decree

elections: Senate - last held for two-thirds of seats 21 May 2000 with runoffs on 9 July boycotted by the opposition; seven seats still disputed; election for remaining one-third held on 26 November 2000 (next to be held in 2004); Chamber of Deputies - last held 21 May 2000 with runoffs on 30 July boycotted by the opposition; one vacant seat rerun 26 November 2000 (next to be held in November 2005)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - FL 26, independent 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - FL 73, MOCHRENA 3, PLB 2, OPL 1, vacant 1, other minor parties and independents 3
Life expectancy at birth total population: 51.78 years

male: 50.52 years

female: 53.12 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 52.9%

male: 54.8%

female: 51.2% (2003 est.)
Location Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic
Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
Merchant marine none
Military branches Haitian National Police (HNP)

note: the regular Haitian Army, Navy, and Air Force have been demobilized but still exist on paper until or unless they are constitutionally abolished
Military expenditures - dollar figure $25.8 million (2003)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.9% (2003)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 1,792,112 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 975,341 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 97,429 (2004 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 1 January (1804)
Nationality noun: Haitian(s)

adjective: Haitian
Natural hazards lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts
Natural resources bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower
Net migration rate -3.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Political parties and leaders Alliance for the Liberation and Advancement of Haiti or ALAH [Reynold GEORGES]; Assembly of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Leslie MANIGAT]; Convention for Democratic Unity or KID [leader Evans PAUL]; Democratic Convergence (opposition coalition composed of KID, KONAKOM, OPL, PANPRA, RNDP, MIDH, and MOCHRENA) [Evans PAUL, Victor BENOIT, Edgard LEBLANC, Serge GILLES, Leslie MANIGAT, Marc BAZIN, Luc MESADIEU]; Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Haiti or MODELH [Francois LATORTUE]; Grand Center Right Front coalition (composed of MDN, MRN, and PDCH) [Hubert de RONCERAY, Jean BUTEAU, Osner FEVRY and Marie-Denise CLAUDE]; Haitian Christian Democratic Party or PDCH [Osner FEVRY and Marie-Denise CLAUDE]; Haitian Democratic Party or PADEMH [Clark PARENT]; Haitian Democratic and Reform Movement or MODEREH [Dany TOUSSAINT and Pierre Soncon PRINCE]; Heads Together [Dr. Gerard BLOT]; Lavalas Family or FL [Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE]; Liberal Party of Haiti or PLH [Michael MADSEN]; Mobilization for National Development or MDN [Hubert DE RONCERAY]; Movement for National Reconstruction or MRN [Jean BUTEAU]; Movement for the Installation of Democracy in Haiti or MIDH [Marc BAZIN]; National Front for the Reconstruction of Haiti or FRON [Guy PHILIPPE and Winter ETIENNE]; National Progressive Democratic Party or PNDPH [Turneb DELPE]; New Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]; Popular Party for the Renewal of Haiti, or Generation 2000 [Claude ROMAIN and Daniel SUPPLICE]; Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Edgard LEBLANC]
Political pressure groups and leaders Autonomous Organizations of Haitian Workers or CATH [Fignole ST-CYR]; Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH; Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS; Group of 184 Civil Society Organization, or G-184 [Andy APAID]; National Popular Assembly or APN; Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP [Chavannes JEAN-BAPTISTE]; Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP; Roman Catholic Church
Population 7,656,166

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 80% (2003 est.)
Population growth rate 1.71% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors Cap-Haitien, Gonaives, Jacmel, Jeremie, Les Cayes, Miragoane, Port-au-Prince, Port-de-Paix, Saint-Marc
Radio broadcast stations AM 41, FM 26, shortwave 0 (1999)
Religions Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3% (1982)

note: roughly half of the population practices Voodoo
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: domestic facilities barely adequate; international facilities slightly better

domestic: coaxial cable and microwave radio relay trunk service

international: country code - 509; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 130,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 140,000 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 2 (plus a cable TV service) (1997)
Terrain mostly rough and mountainous
Total fertility rate 4.76 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate widespread unemployment and underemployment; more than two-thirds of the labor force do not have formal jobs (2002 est.)
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