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Haiti (2006)

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Haiti 2006 year

Administrative divisions 10 departments (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand 'Anse, Nippes, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est
Age structure 0-14 years: 42.4% (male 1,770,523/female 1,749,853)

15-64 years: 54.2% (male 2,201,957/female 2,301,886)

65 years and over: 3.4% (male 125,298/female 158,987) (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum; wood
Airports 12 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways total: 4

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 8

914 to 1,523 m: 1

under 914 m: 7 (2006)
Area total: 27,750 sq km

land: 27,560 sq km

water: 190 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Maryland
Background The native Taino Amerindians - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when it was discovered by COLUMBUS in 1492 - were virtually annihilated by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola, and in 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean, but only through the heavy importation of African slaves and considerable environmental degradation. In the late 18th century, Haiti's nearly half million slaves revolted under Toussaint L'OUVERTURE. After a prolonged struggle, Haiti became the first black republic to declare its independence in 1804. The poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti has been plagued by political violence for most of its history. After an armed rebellion led to the departure of President Jean-Betrand ARISTIDE in February 2004, an interim government took office to organize new elections under the auspices of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH). Continued violence and technical delays have prompted repeated postponements, and Haiti missed the constitutionally-mandated presidential inauguration date of 7 February 2006.
Birth rate 36.44 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budget revenues: $400 million

expenditures: $600.8 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005 est.)
Capital name: Port-au-Prince

geographic coordinates: 18 32 N, 72 20 W

time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in October
Climate tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds
Coastline 1,771 km
Constitution approved March 1987; suspended June 1988 with most articles reinstated March 1989; constitutional government ousted in a military coup in September 1991, although in October 1991, military government claimed to be observing the constitution; returned to constitutional rule in October 1994; constitution remains technically in force but has not been observed since Aristide's departure in 2004
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Haiti

conventional short form: Haiti

local long form: Republique d'Haiti/Repiblik d' Ayiti

local short form: Haiti/Ayiti
Death rate 12.17 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Debt - external $1.313 billion (2005 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Janet A. SANDERSON

embassy: 5 Harry S Truman Boulevard, Bicentenaire-Port-au-Prince

mailing address: P. O. Box 1761, Port-au-Prince

telephone: [509] 222-0200

FAX: [509] 223-9038
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond JOSEPH (as of October 2005)

chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090

FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
Disputes - international since 2004, about 8,000 peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) maintain civil order in Haiti; despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians fleeing economic privation and civil unrest continue to cross into the Dominican Republic and sail to neighboring countries; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island
Economic aid - recipient $153 million (FY05 est.)
Economy - overview In this poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, 80% of the population lives in abject poverty. Two-thirds of all Haitians depend on the agriculture sector, mainly small-scale subsistence farming, and remain vulnerable to damage from frequent natural disasters, exacerbated by the country's widespread deforestation. The economy grew 1.5% in 2005, the highest growth rate since 1999. Haiti suffers from rampant inflation, a lack of investment, and a severe trade deficit. In early 2005, Haiti paid its arrears to the World Bank, paving the way for reengagement with the Bank. The government is reliant on formal international economic assistance for fiscal sustainability. Remittances are the primary source of foreign exchange, equaling nearly a quarter of GDP in 2005.
Electricity - consumption 507.8 million kWh (2003)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2003)
Electricity - production 546 million kWh (2003)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m

highest point: Chaine de la Selle 2,680 m
Environment - current issues extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes
Ethnic groups black 95%, mulatto and white 5%
Exchange rates gourdes per US dollar - 40.449 (2005), 38.352 (2004), 42.367 (2003), 29.251 (2002), 24.429 (2001)
Executive branch chief of state: President Rene PREVAL (since 14 May 2006)

head of government: Prime Minister Jacques-Edouard ALEXIS (since 30 May 2006)

cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 7 February 2006 (next to be held in 2011); prime minister appointed by the president, ratified by the National Assembly

election results: Rene PREVAL elected president; percent of vote - Rene PREVAL 51%
Exports 0 kWh (2003)
Exports $390.7 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities manufactures, coffee, oils, cocoa, mangoes
Exports - partners US 80.8%, Dominican Republic 6.9%, Canada 4% (2005)
Fiscal year 1 October - 30 September
Flag description two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 28%

industry: 20%

services: 52% (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 1.8% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 19 00 N, 72 25 W
Geography - note shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs Caribbean transshipment point for cocaine en route to the US and Europe; substantial money-laundering activity; Colombian narcotics traffickers favor Haiti for illicit financial transactions; pervasive corruption
Imports 0 kWh (2003)
Imports $1.471 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities food, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, raw materials
Imports - partners US 49.3%, Netherlands Antilles 12%, Colombia 3.2% (2005)
Independence 1 January 1804 (from France)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries sugar refining, flour milling, textiles, cement, light assembly industries based on imported parts
Infant mortality rate total: 71.65 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 78.01 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 65.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 15.7% (2005 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ACP, Caricom, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, MIGA, OAS, OIF, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Irrigated land 920 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court or Cour de Cassation
Labor force 3.6 million

note: shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (1995)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 66%

industry: 9%

services: 25%
Land boundaries total: 360 km

border countries: Dominican Republic 360 km
Land use arable land: 28.11%

permanent crops: 11.53%

other: 60.36% (2005)
Languages French (official), Creole (official)
Legal system based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch bicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale consists of the Senate (30 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies (99 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - in reestablishing the Senate, the candidate in each department receiving the most votes in the last election serves six years, the candidate with the second most votes serves four years, and the candidate with the third most votes serves two years

elections: Senate - last held 21 April 2006, run-off elections to be determined (next regular election, for one third of seats, to be held in 2008); Chamber of Deputies - last held 21 April 2006, run-off elections to be determined (next regular election to be held in 2010)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - L'ESPWA 11, OPL 4, FL 3, FUSION 3, LAAA 2, UNCRH 2, ALYANS 1, PONT 1, 3 seats subject to run-off election; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - L'ESPWA 19, FUSION 15, ALYANS 10, OPL 8, FL 6, UNCRH 6, MPH 4, RDNP 4, LAAA 3,KONBA 3, FRN 1, MOCHRENHA 1, MRN 1, Tet-Ansanm 1, MIRN 1, JPDN 1, UNITE 1, PLH 1, 13 seats subject to run-off election
Life expectancy at birth total population: 53.23 years

male: 51.89 years

female: 54.6 years (2006 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 52.9%

male: 54.8%

female: 51.2% (2003 est.)
Location Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic
Map references Central America and the Caribbean
Maritime claims territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
Military branches the regular Haitian Armed Forces (FAdH) - Army, Navy, and Air Force - have been demobilized but still exist on paper unless they are constitutionally abolished
Military expenditures - dollar figure $25.96 million (2003 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.9% (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 1 January (1804)
Nationality noun: Haitian(s)

adjective: Haitian
Natural hazards lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts
Natural resources bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower
Net migration rate -1.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Political parties and leaders Artibonite in Action or LAAA [Youri LATORTUE]; Assembly of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Leslie MANIGAT]; Convention for Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]; Cooperative Action to Build Haiti or KONBA [Evans LESCOUFALIR]; Democratic Alliance or ALYANS (coalition composed of KID and PPRH) [Evans PAUL]; Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative for the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]; For Us All or PONT [Jean-Marie CHERESTAL]; Front for Hope or L'ESPWA (alliance of ESKAMP, PLB, and grass-roots organizations Grand-Anse Resistance Committee, the Central Plateau Peasants' Group, and Kombit Sudest) [Rene PREVAL]; Grand Center Right Front coalition (composed of MDN, MRN, and PDCH) [Hubert de RONCERAY]; Haitian Christian Democratic Party or PDCH [Osner FEVRY and Marie-Denise CLAUDE]; Haitian Democratic and Reform Movement or MODEREH [Dany TOUSSAINT and Pierre Soncon PRINCE]; Heads Together or Tet-Ansanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]; Independent Movement for National Reconciliation or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]; Justice for Peace and National Development or JPDN [Rigaud DUPLAN]; Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Rudy HERIVEAUX]; Liberal Party of Haiti or PLH [Gehy MICHEL]; Merging of Haitian Social Democratic Parties or FUSION or FPSDH (merged Ayiti Capable, Haitian National Revolutionary Party, and National Congress of Democratic Movements) [Serge GILLES]; Mobilization for Haiti's Development or MPH [Samir MOURRA]; Mobilization for National Development or MDN [Hubert de RONCERAY]; Movement for National Reconstruction or MRN [Jean Henold BUTEAU]; Movement for the Installation of Democracy in Haiti or MIDH [Marc BAZIN]; National Christian Union for the Reconstruction of Haiti or UNCRH [Marie Claude GERMAIN]; National Front for the Reconstruction of Haiti or FRN [Guy PHILIPPE]; New Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]; Open the Gate Party or PLB [Anes LUBIN]; Popular Party for the Renewal of Haiti or PPRH [Claude ROMAIN and Daniel SUPPLICE]; Struggling People's Organization or OPL [Edgard LEBLANC]; Union for Haiti or UPH (coalition of MIDH and FL) [Marc BAZIN]; Union of Nationalist and Progressive Haitians or UNITE [Edouard FRANCISQUE]
Political pressure groups and leaders Autonomous Organizations of Haitian Workers or CATH [Fignole ST-CYR]; Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH; Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS; Grand-Anse Resistance Committee, or KOREGA; Group of 184 Civil Society Organizations, or G-184 [Andy APAID]; National Popular Assembly or APN; Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP [Chavannes JEAN-BAPTISTE]; Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP; Roman Catholic Church; Protestant Federation of Haiti
Population 8,308,504

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2006 est.)
Population below poverty line 80% (2003 est.)
Population growth rate 2.3% (2006 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 41, FM 26, shortwave 0 (1999)
Religions Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3%

note: roughly half of the population practices Voodoo
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: domestic facilities barely adequate; international facilities slightly better

domestic: coaxial cable and microwave radio relay trunk service

international: country code - 509; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 140,000 (2004)
Telephones - mobile cellular 400,000 (2004)
Television broadcast stations 2 (plus a cable TV service) (1997)
Terrain mostly rough and mountainous
Total fertility rate 4.94 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate widespread unemployment and underemployment; more than two-thirds of the labor force do not have formal jobs (2002 est.)
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