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Zimbabwe (2008)

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ZimbabweZimbabwe (2001) (porownaj)
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ZimbabweZimbabwe (2007) (porownaj)


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Zimbabwe 2008 roku

 Zimbabwe
Podzial administracyjny 8 provinces and 2 cities* z provincial status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 37.2% (male 2,308,731/female 2,266,027)


15-64 years: 59.3% (male 3,663,108/female 3,641,519)


65 years and over: 3.5% (male 198,867/female 232,891) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo corn, cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; sheep, goats, pigs
Lotniska 341 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 19


over 3,047 m: 3


2,438 to 3,047 m: 2


1,524 to 2,437 m: 4


914 to 1,523 m: 10 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 322


1,524 to 2,437 m: 4


914 to 1,523 m: 152


under 914 m: 166 (2007)
Terytorium total: 390,580 sq km


land: 386,670 sq km


water: 3,910 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than Montana
Tlo historyczne The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the [British] Republika Poludniowej Afryki Company w 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated that favored whites w power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence, but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded more complete voting rights dla the black African majority w the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections w 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) w 1980. Robert MUGABE, the nation's first prime minister, has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence. His chaotic land redistribution campaign, which began w 2000, caused an exodus of white farmers, crippled the economy, and ushered w widespread shortages of basic commodities. Ignoring international condemnation, MUGABE rigged the 2002 presidential election to ensure his reelection. The ruling ZANU-PF party used fraud and intimidation to win a two-thirds majority w the marzec 2005 parliamentary election, allowing it to amend the constitution at will and recreate the Senate, which had been abolished w the late 1980s. In kwiecien 2005, Harare embarked on Operation Restore Order, ostensibly an urban rationalization program, which resulted w the destruction of the homes or businesses of 700,000 mostly poor supporters of the opposition, according to UN estimates. President Mugabe w czerwiec 2007 instituted price controls on all basic commodities causing panic buying and leaving store shelves empty dla months. In pazdziernik 2007, Konstytucjaal Amendment 18 came into effect allowing dla harmonized presidential and parliamentary elections, shortening the length of the presidential term to five years, and moving up the date dla parliamentary elections. General elections are expected w marzec 2008.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 27.72 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $1.105 billion


expenditures: $1.366 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Harare


geographic coordinates: 17 50 S, 31 03 E


time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (listopad to marzec)
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja 21 grudzien 1979
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe


conventional short form: Zimbabwe


former: Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia
Wspolczynnik zgonow 21.76 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $4.876 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador James D. MCGEE


embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare


mailing address: P. O. Box 3340, Harare


telephone: [263] (4) 250-593 and 250-594


FAX: [263] (4) 796-488
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Machivenyika T. MAPURANGA


chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009


telephone: [1] (202) 332-7100


FAX: [1] (202) 483-9326
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Botswana built electric fences and Republika Poludniowej Afryki has placed military along the border to stem the flow of thousands of Zimbabweans fleeing to find work and escape political persecution; Namibia has supported, and w 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary w the river
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $367.7 million; note - the EU and the US provide food aid on humanitarian grounds (2005 est.)
Ekonomia The government of Zimbabwe faces a wide variety of difficult economic problems as it struggles z an unsustainable fiscal deficit, an overvalued official exchange rate, hyperinflation, and bare store shelves. Its 1998-2002 involvement w the war w the Democratic Republic of the Congo drained hundreds of millions of dollars from the economy. The government's land reform program, characterized by chaos and violence, has badly damaged the commercial farming sector, the traditional source of exports and foreign exchange and the provider of 400,000 jobs, turning Zimbabwe into a net importer of food products. Badly needed support from the IMF has been suspended because of the government's arrears on past loans and the government's unwillingness to enact reforms that would stabilize the economy. The Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe routinely prints money to fund the budget deficit, causing the official annual inflation rate to rise from 32% w 1998, to 133% w 2004, 585% w 2005, passed 1000% w 2006, and 26000% w listopad 2007. Private sector estimates of inflation w 2007 are well above 100,000%. Meanwhile, the official exchange rate fell from approximately 1 (revalued) Zimbabwean dollar per US dollar w 2003 to 30,000 per US dollar w 2007.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 12.27 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 3.013 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 9.95 billion kWh (2005)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: junction of the Runde and Save rivers 162 m


highest point: Inyangani 2,592 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once the largest concentration of the species w the world - has been significantly reduced by poaching; poor mining practices have led to toxic waste and heavy metal pollution
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne African 98% (Shona 82%, Ndebele 14%, other 2%), mixed and Asian 1%, white less than 1%
Kurs waluty Zimbabwean dollars per US dollar - 30,000 (2007), 162.07 (2006), 77.965 (2005), 5.729 (2004), 0.824 (2003)


note: these are official exchange rates; non-official rates vary significantly
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 grudzien 1987); Vice President Joseph MSIKA (since grudzien 1999) and Vice President Joyce MUJURU (since 6 grudzien 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 grudzien 1987); Vice President Joseph MSIKA (since grudzien 1999) and Vice President Joyce MUJURU (since 6 grudzien 2004)


cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; responsible to the House of Assembly


elections: presidential candidates nominated z a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least one from each province) and elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 9-11 marzec 2002 (next to be held 28 marzec 2008); co-vice presidents appointed by the president


election results: Robert Gabriel MUGABE reelected president; percent of vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE 56.2%, Morgan TSVANGIRAI 41.9%
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $1.76 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 0 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Eksport - towary platinum, cotton, tobacco, gold, ferroalloys, textiles/clothing
Eksport - partnerzy Republika Poludniowej Afryki 24.8%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 17.6%, Botswana 15.7%, US 10.4% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green z a white isosceles triangle edged w black z its base on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird representing the long history of the country is superimposed on a red five-pointed star w the center of the triangle, which symbolizes peace; green symbolizes agriculture, yellow - mineral wealth, red - blood shed to achieve independence, and black stands dla the native people
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 16.7%


industry: 21.6%


services: 61.6% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu -6% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 20 00 S, 30 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary z Zambia; w full flood (February-April) the massive Victoria Falls on the river forms the world's largest curtain of falling water
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2%


highest 10%: 40.4% (1995)
Narkotyki transit point dla cannabis and South Asian heroin, mandrax, and methamphetamines en route to Republika Poludniowej Afryki
Import 3.013 billion kWh (2005)
Import $2.183 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 13,370 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Import - towary machinery and transport equipment, other manufactures, chemicals, fuels
Import - partnerzy Republika Poludniowej Afryki 40.8%, Zambia 29.6%, US 4.9% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 18 kwiecien 1980 (from UK)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 0.5% (2007 est.)
Przemysl mining (coal, gold, platinum, copper, nickel, tin, clay, numerous metallic and nonmetallic ores), steel; wood products, cement, chemicals, fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 51.12 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 53.87 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 48.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 26,470% official data; private sector estimates are much higher (2007)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 1,740 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court; High Court
Sila robocza 3.998 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 66%


industry: 10%


services: 24% (1996)
Granica total: 3,066 km


border countries: Botswana 813 km, Mozambik 1,231 km, Republika Poludniowej Afryki 225 km, Zambia 797 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 8.24%


permanent crops: 0.33%


other: 91.43% (2005)
Jezyki English (official), Shona, Sindebele (the language of the Ndebele, sometimes called Ndebele), numerous but minor tribal dialects
System prawny mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law
Wladza ustawodawcza bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate (93 seats - 60 elected by popular vote dla a five-year term, 10 provincial governors nominated by the president, 16 provincial chiefs appointed by the president and deputy president from all provinces except Harare and Bulawayo, and 7 appointed by the president) and a House of Assembly (210 seats - all elected by popular vote dla five-year terms)


elections: Senate last held 26 listopad 2005 (next to be held 28 marzec 2008; House of Assembly last held 31 marzec 2005 (next to be held 28 marzec 2008)


election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - ZANU-PF 73.7%, MDC 20.3%, other 4.4%, independents 1.6%; seats by party - ZANU-PF 43, MDC 7; House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - ZANU-PF 59.6%, MDC 39.5%, other 0.9%; seats by party - ZANU-PF 78, MDC 41, independents 1
Zywotnosc total population: 39.5 years


male: 40.62 years


female: 38.35 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write English


total population: 90.7%


male: 94.2%


female: 87.2% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Southern Africa, between Republika Poludniowej Afryki and Zambia
Lokalizacja na mapie Africa
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Wojsko Zimbabwe Defense Forces (ZDF): Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe (AFZ), Zimbabwe Republic Police (2005)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 3.8% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 18 kwiecien (1980)
Narodowosc noun: Zimbabwean(s)


adjective: Zimbabwean
Naturalne zagrozenia recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare
Surowce naturalne coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals
Wspolczynnik migracji 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population


note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into Republika Poludniowej Afryki and Botswana w search of better economic opportunities (2007 est.)
Rurociagi refined products 270 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy African National Party or ANP [Egipt DZINEMUNHENZVA]; Movement dla Democratic Change or MDC [Morgan TSVANGIRAI, anti-Senate faction; Arthur MUTAMBARA, pro-Senate faction]; Peace Action is Freedom dla All or PAFA; United Parties [Abel MUZOREWA]; United People's Party or UPP [Daniel SHUMBA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga or ZANU-Ndonga [Wilson KUMBULA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert Gabriel MUGABE]; Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU [Agrippa MADLELA]; Zimbabwe Youth w Alliance or ZIYA
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Crisis w Zimbabwe Coalition [Xolani ZITHA]; National Konstytucjaal Assembly or NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU]; Women of Zimbabwe Arise or WOZA [Jenny WILLIAMS]; Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions or ZCTU [Wellington CHIBEBE]
Ludnosc 12,311,143


note: estimates dla this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result w lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes w the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 68% (2004)
Przyrost naturalny 0.595% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 7, FM 20 (plus 17 repeater stations), shortwave 1 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 3,077 km


narrow gauge: 3,077 km 1.067-m gauge (313 km electrified) (2006)
Religie syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.019 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.006 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.854 male(s)/female


total population: 1.005 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: system was once one of the best w Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance; more than 100,000 outstanding requests dla connection despite an equally large number of installed but unused main lines


domestic: consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, and a substantial mobile cellular network; Internet connection is available w Harare and planned dla all major towns and dla some of the smaller ones


international: country code - 263; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; 2 international digital gateway exchanges (in Harare and Gweru)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 331,700 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 832,500 (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 16 (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mostly high plateau z higher central plateau (high veld); mountains w east
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 3.08 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 80% (2005 est.)
Drogi wodne on Lake Kariba (2005)
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