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Zimbabwe (2001)

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Zimbabwe 2001 year

Administrative divisions 8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands
Age structure 0-14 years:
38.68% (male 2,223,332; female 2,172,479)

15-64 years:
57.69% (male 3,319,982; female 3,236,286)

65 years and over:
3.63% (male 208,785; female 204,502) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products corn, cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs
Airports 455 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:
9 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
224 (2000 est.)
Area total:
390,580 sq km

386,670 sq km

3,910 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Montana
Background The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated to keep whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence, but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE, the nation's first prime minister, has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence.
Birth rate 24.68 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$2.5 billion

$2.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $279 million (FY96/97 est.)
Capital Harare
Climate tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 21 December 1979
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Zimbabwe

conventional short form:

Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia
Currency Zimbabwean dollar (ZWD)
Death rate 23.22 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $4.1 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affairs Earl M. IRVING

172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare

mailing address:
P. O. Box 3340, Harare

[263] (4) 250-593

[263] (4) 796487
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Simbi Veke MUBAKO

1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

[1] (202) 332-7100

[1] (202) 483-9326
Economic aid - recipient $200 million (2000 est.)
Economy - overview The government of Zimbabwe faces a wide variety of difficult economic problems as it struggles to consolidate earlier moves to develop a market-oriented economy. Its involvement in the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, for example, has already drained hundreds of millions of dollars from the economy. Badly needed support from the IMF suffers delays in part because of the country's failure to meet budgetary goals. Inflation rose from an annual rate of 32% in 1998 to 59% in 1999 and 60% in 2000. The economy is being steadily weakened by excessive government deficits and AIDS; Zimbabwe has the highest rate of infection in the world. Per capita GDP, which is twice the average of the poorer sub-Saharan nations, will increase little if any in the near-term, and Zimbabwe will suffer continued frustrations in developing its agricultural and mineral resources.
Electricity - consumption 6.939 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 1.564 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 5.78 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
junction of the Runde and Save rivers 162 m

highest point:
Inyangani 2,592 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once the largest concentration of the species in the world - has been significantly reduced by poaching
Environment - international agreements party to:
Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified:
none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups African 98% (Shona 71%, Ndebele 16%, other 11%), mixed and Asian 1%, white less than 1%
Exchange rates Zimbabwean dollars per US dollar - 54.9451 (January 2001), 43.2900 (2000), 38.3142 (1999), 21.4133 (1998), 11.8906 (1997), 9.9206 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice Presidents Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987) and Joseph MSIKA (since 23 December 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government:
Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Co-Vice Presidents Simon Vengai MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987) and Joseph MSIKA (since 23 December 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

Cabinet appointed by the president; responsible to the House of Assembly

presidential candidates nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least one from each province) and elected by popular vote; election last held 16-17 March 1996 (next to be held NA March 2002); co-vice presidents appointed by the president

election results:
Robert Gabriel MUGABE reelected president; percent of electoral college vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE 92.7%, Abel MUZOREWA 4.8%; Ndabaningi SITHOLE 2.4%
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities tobacco 29%, gold 7%, ferroalloys 7%, cotton 5% (1999 est.)
Exports - partners South Africa 10%, UK 9%, Malawi 8%, Botswana 8%, Japan 7%, (1999 est.)
Fiscal year 1 July - 30 June
Flag description seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white isosceles triangle edged in black with its base on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle
GDP purchasing power parity - $28.2 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


40% (1997 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate -6.1% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 20 00 S, 30 00 E
Geography - note landlocked
Highways total:
18,338 km

8,692 km

9,646 km (1996 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
46.9% (1990)
Illicit drugs significant transit point for African cannabis and South Asian heroin, mandrax, and methamphetamines destined for the South African and European markets
Imports 1.564 billion kWh (1999)
Imports $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment 35%, other manufactures 18%, chemicals 17%, fuels 14% (1999 est.)
Imports - partners South Africa 46%, UK 6%, China 4%, Germany 4%, US 3% (1999 est.)
Independence 18 April 1980 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate NA%
Industries mining (coal, gold, copper, nickel, tin, clay, numerous metallic and nonmetallic ores), steel, wood products, cement, chemicals, fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages
Infant mortality rate 62.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 60% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 6 (2000)
Irrigated land 1,930 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; High Court
Labor force 5.5 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 66%, services 24%, industry 10% (1996 est.)
Land boundaries total:
3,066 km

border countries:
Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa 225 km, Zambia 797 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

57% (1993 est.)
Languages English (official), Shona, Sindebele (the language of the Ndebele, sometimes called Ndebele), numerous but minor tribal dialects
Legal system mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law
Legislative branch unicameral parliament, called House of Assembly (150 seats - 120 elected by popular vote for six-year terms, 12 nominated by the president, 10 occupied by traditional chiefs chosen by their peers, and 8 occupied by provincial governors)

last held 24-25 June 2000 (next to be held NA 2006)

election results:
percent of vote by party - ZANU-PF 47.2%, MDC 45.6%, ZANU-Ndonga 0.7%, United Parties 0.7%; seats by party - ZANU-PF 63, MDC 56, ZANU-Ndonga 1
Life expectancy at birth total population:
37.13 years

38.51 years

35.7 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write English

total population:


80% (1995 est.)
Location Southern Africa, between South Africa and Zambia
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Republic Police (includes Police Support Unit, Paramilitary Police)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $127 million (FY99/00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.1% (FY99/00)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
2,996,631 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
1,860,167 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 18 April (1980)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare
Natural resources coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)

there is a small but steady flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa in search of better paid employment
Pipelines petroleum products 212 km
Political parties and leaders Movement for Democratic Change or MDC [Morgan TSVANGIRAI]; Popular Democratic Front or PDF [Austin CHAKAODZA]; United Parties [Abel MUZOREWA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga or ZANU-Ndonga [Ndabaningi SITHOLE]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert MUGABE]; Zimbabwe Unity Movement or ZUM [Edgar TEKERE]
Political pressure groups and leaders National Constitutional Assembly or NCA
Population 11,365,366

estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 60% (1999 est.)
Population growth rate 0.15% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Binga, Kariba
Radio broadcast stations AM 7, FM 20 (plus 17 repeater stations), shortwave 1 (1998)
Radios 1.14 million (1997)
Railways total:
2,759 km (1995)

narrow gauge:
2,759 km 1.067-m gauge (313 km electrified; 42 km double track) (1995 est.)
Religions syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.03 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
1.02 male(s)/female

total population:
1.02 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
system was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance; more than 100,000 outstanding requests for connection despite an equally large number of installed but unused main lines

consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, and a substantial mobile cellular network; Internet connection is available in Harare and planned for all major towns and for some of the smaller ones

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; two international digital gateway exchanges (in Harare and Gweru)
Telephones - main lines in use 212,000 (in addition there are about 20,000 fixed telephones in wireless local loop connections) (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 70,000 (1999)
Television broadcast stations 16 (1997)
Terrain mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east
Total fertility rate 3.28 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 50% (2000 est.)
Waterways the Mazoe and Zambezi rivers are used for transporting chrome ore from Harare to Mozambique
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