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Zimbabwe (2003)

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Zimbabwe 2003 year

Administrative divisions 8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands
Age structure 0-14 years: 39.7% (male 2,517,608; female 2,471,342)

15-64 years: 56.8% (male 3,600,832; female 3,542,497)

65 years and over: 3.5% (male 224,631; female 219,832) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products corn, cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs
Airports 430 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 17

over 3,047 m: 3

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 8 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 413

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 197

under 914 m: 212 (2002)
Area total: 390,580 sq km

land: 386,670 sq km

water: 3,910 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Montana
Background The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated that favored whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence, but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded more complete voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE, the nation's first prime minister, has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence. His chaotic land redistribution campaign begun in 2000 caused an exodus of white farmers, crippled the economy, and ushered in widespread shortages of basic commodities. Ignoring international condemnation, MUGABE rigged the 2002 presidential election to ensure his reelection. Opposition and labor groups launched general strikes in 2003 to pressure MUGABE to retire early; security forces continued their brutal repression of regime opponents.
Birth rate 30.34 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $2.5 billion

expenditures: $2.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000)
Capital Harare
Climate tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 21 December 1979
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe

conventional short form: Zimbabwe

former: Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia
Currency Zimbabwean dollar (ZWD)
Death rate 22.02 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $3.9 billion (2002 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph G. SULLIVAN

embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare

mailing address: P. O. Box 3340, Harare

telephone: [263] (4) 250-593 and 250-594

FAX: [263] (4) 796488
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Simbi Veke MUBAKO

chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009

telephone: [1] (202) 332-7100

FAX: [1] (202) 483-9326
Disputes - international dormant dispute remains where Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe boundaries converge
Economic aid - recipient $178 million (2000 est.)
Economy - overview The government of Zimbabwe faces a wide variety of difficult economic problems as it struggles with an unsustainable fiscal deficit, an overvalued exchange rate, soaring inflation, and bare shelves. Its 1998-2002 involvement in the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, for example, drained hundreds of millions of dollars from the economy. Badly needed support from the IMF has been suspended because of the country's failure to meet budgetary goals. Inflation rose from an annual rate of 32% in 1998 to 59% in 1999, to 60% in 2000, to over 100% by yearend 2001, to 228% in early 2003. The government's land reform program, characterized by chaos and violence, has nearly destroyed the commercial farming sector, the traditional source of exports and foreign exchange and the provider of 400,000 jobs.
Electricity - consumption 9.813 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 3.55 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 6.735 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 47%

hydro: 53%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: junction of the Runde and Save rivers 162 m

highest point: Inyangani 2,592 m
Environment - current issues deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once the largest concentration of the species in the world - has been significantly reduced by poaching; poor mining practices have led to toxic waste and heavy metal pollution
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups African 98% (Shona 82%, Ndebele 14%, other 2%), mixed and Asian 1%, white less than 1%
Exchange rates Zimbabwean dollars per US dollar - 55 (2002), 55.05 (2001), 44.42 (2000), 38.3 (1999), 23.68 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Joseph MSIKA (since 23 December 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Joseph MSIKA (since 23 December 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; responsible to the House of Assembly

elections: presidential candidates nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least one from each province) and elected by popular vote; election last held 9-11 March 2002 (next to be held NA March 2008); co-vice presidents appointed by the president

election results: Robert Gabriel MUGABE reelected president; percent of vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE 56.2%, Morgan TSVANGIRAI 41.9%
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $1.57 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities tobacco, gold, ferroalloys, textiles/clothing
Exports - partners China 6%, South Africa 5.7%, Germany 5.4%, UK 4.8%, Japan 4.7%, Netherlands 4.4%, US 4.1% (2002)
Fiscal year 1 January - 31 December
Flag description seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white isosceles triangle edged in black with its base on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird representing the long history of the country is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle, which symbolizes peace; green symbolizes agriculture, yellow - mineral wealth, red - blood shed to achieve independence, and black stands for the native people
GDP purchasing power parity - $26.07 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 18%

industry: 24%

services: 58% (2001)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $2,100 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate -13% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 20 00 S, 30 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zambia; in full flood (February-April) the massive Victoria Falls on the river forms the world's largest curtain of falling water
Highways total: 18,338 km

paved: 8,692 km

unpaved: 9,646 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.97%

highest 10%: 40.42% (1995)
Illicit drugs transit point for African cannabis and South Asian heroin, mandrax, and methamphetamines destined for the South African and European markets
Imports 3.55 billion kWh (2001)
Imports $1.739 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and transport equipment, other manufactures, chemicals, fuels
Imports - partners South Africa 47.7%, Congo, Democratic Republic of the 5.7%, Mozambique 5.3% (2002)
Independence 18 April 1980 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate -3.1% (2002 est.)
Industries mining (coal, gold, copper, nickel, tin, clay, numerous metallic and nonmetallic ores), steel, wood products, cement, chemicals, fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages
Infant mortality rate total: 66.47 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 69.17 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 63.69 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 134.5% (2002 est.)
International organization participation ACP, AfDB, C, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 6 (2000)
Irrigated land 1,170 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court; High Court
Labor force 5.8 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 66%, services 24%, industry 10% (1996)
Land boundaries total: 3,066 km

border countries: Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa 225 km, Zambia 797 km
Land use arable land: 8.4%

permanent crops: 0.34%

other: 91.26% (1998 est.)
Languages English (official), Shona, Sindebele (the language of the Ndebele, sometimes called Ndebele), numerous but minor tribal dialects
Legal system mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law
Legislative branch unicameral House of Assembly (150 seats - 120 elected by popular vote for five-year terms, 12 nominated by the president, 10 occupied by traditional chiefs chosen by their peers, and 8 occupied by provincial governors appointed by the president)

elections: last held 24-25 June 2000 (next to be held NA 2005)

election results: percent of vote by party - ZANU-PF 48.6%, MDC 47.0%, other 4.4%; seats by party - ZANU-PF 62, MDC 57, ZANU-Ndonga 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 39.01 years

male: 40.09 years

female: 37.89 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write English

total population: 90.7%

male: 94.2%

female: 87.2% (2003 est.)
Location Southern Africa, between South Africa and Zambia
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Republic Police (includes Police Support Unit, Paramilitary Police)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $625.1 million (FY02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 3.2% (FY02)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 3,236,042 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 2,003,572 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 18 April (1980)
Nationality noun: Zimbabwean(s)

adjective: Zimbabwean
Natural hazards recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare
Natural resources coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals
Net migration rate NEGL migrant(s)/1,000 population

note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2003 est.)
Pipelines refined products 261 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders Movement for Democratic Change or MDC [Morgan TSVANGIRAI]; National Alliance for Good Governance or NAGG [Shakespeare MAYA]; United Parties [Abel MUZOREWA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga or ZANU-Ndonga [Wilson KUMBULA]; Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert Gabriel MUGABE]; Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU [Agrippa MADLELA]
Political pressure groups and leaders National Constitutional Assembly or NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU]; Crisis in Zimbabwe Coalition [Brian KAGORO]; Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions or ZCTU [Lovemore MATOMBO]
Population 12,576,742

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 70% (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 0.83% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Binga, Kariba
Radio broadcast stations AM 7, FM 20 (plus 17 repeater stations), shortwave 1 (1998)
Railways total: 3,077 km

narrow gauge: 3,077 km 1.067-m gauge (313 km electrified)

note: includes the 318 km Bulawayo-Beitbridge Railway Company line (2002)
Religions syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female

total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: system was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance; more than 100,000 outstanding requests for connection despite an equally large number of installed but unused main lines

domestic: consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, and a substantial mobile cellular network; Internet connection is available in Harare and planned for all major towns and for some of the smaller ones

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; two international digital gateway exchanges (in Harare and Gweru)
Telephones - main lines in use 212,000 (in addition, there are about 20,000 fixed telephones in wireless local loop connections) (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 111,000 (2001)
Television broadcast stations 16 (1997)
Terrain mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east
Total fertility rate 3.66 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 70% (2002 est.)
Waterways chrome ore is transported from Harare - by way of the Mazoe River - to the Zambezi River in Mozambique
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