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Luxembourg (2008)

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Luxembourg 2008 year

Administrative divisions 3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg
Age structure 0-14 years: 18.8% (male 46,478/female 43,656)

15-64 years: 66.6% (male 161,466/female 158,261)

65 years and over: 14.7% (male 28,530/female 41,831) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products wine, grapes, barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits; dairy products, livestock products
Airports 2 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Area total: 2,586 sq km

land: 2,586 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Background Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both World Wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.
Birth rate 11.84 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $14.29 billion

expenditures: $13.92 billion (2007 est.)
Capital name: Luxembourg

geographic coordinates: 49 36 N, 6 07 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Climate modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 17 October 1868; occasional revisions
Country name conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

conventional short form: Luxembourg

local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg

local short form: Luxembourg
Death rate 8.42 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $NA
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ann WAGNER

embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City

mailing address: American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)

telephone: [352] 46 01 23

FAX: [352] 46 14 01
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph WEYLAND

chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171/72

FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270

consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - donor ODA, $235.6 million (2004)
Economy - overview This stable, high-income economy - benefiting from its proximity to France, Belgium, and Germany - features solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. Growth in the financial sector, which now accounts for about 28% of GDP, has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Most banks are foreign-owned and have extensive foreign dealings. Agriculture is based on small family-owned farms. The economy depends on foreign and cross-border workers for about 60% of its labor force. Although Luxembourg, like all EU members, suffered from the global economic slump in the early part of this decade, the country continues to enjoy an extraordinarily high standard of living - GDP per capita ranks first in the world. After two years of strong economic growth in 2006-07, Luxembourg's economy probably will slow in 2008 as a result of turmoil in the world financial markets, but growth will remain above the European average.
Electricity - consumption 6.315 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - exports 3.131 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - imports 6.392 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity - production 3.156 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Moselle River 133 m

highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m
Environment - current issues air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Ethnic groups Celtic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese, Italian, Slavs (from Montenegro, Albania, and Kosovo) and European (guest and resident workers)
Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch)

head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 20 January 1995); Deputy Prime Minister Jean ASSELBORN (since 31 July 2004)

cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the deputy prime minister is appointed by the monarch; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies

note: government coalition - CSV and LSAP
Exports 3.131 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Exports $19.58 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 283 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass
Exports - partners Germany 19.3%, France 15.5%, Italy 9.5%, UK 9.5%, Belgium 8.8%, Spain 5.3%, Netherlands 4.5% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1%

industry: 13%

services: 86% (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 49 45 N, 6 10 E
Geography - note landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world
Heliports 1 (2007)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 3.5%

highest 10%: 23.8% (2000)
Imports 6.392 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Imports $26.85 billion c.i.f. (2007 est.)
Imports 1.356 billion cu m (2005)
Imports 61,070 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods
Imports - partners Belgium 26.3%, Germany 20.1%, China 16.7%, France 8.5%, UK 5.5%, Netherlands 4.2% (2006)
Independence 1839 (from the Netherlands)
Industrial production growth rate 4.3% (2006 est.)
Industries banking and financial services, iron and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism
Infant mortality rate total: 4.68 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.67 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 4.69 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2.1% (2007 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, ADB (nonregional members), Australia Group, Benelux, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Irrigated land NA
Judicial branch judicial courts and tribunals (3 Justices of the Peace, 2 district courts, and 1 Supreme Court of Appeals); administrative courts and tribunals (State Prosecutor's Office, administrative courts and tribunals, and the Constitutional Court); judges for all courts are appointed for life by the monarch
Labor force 205,000 of whom 121,600 are foreign cross-border workers commuting primarily from France, Belgium, and Germany (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 1%

industry: 13%

services: 86% (2004 est.)
Land boundaries total: 359 km

border countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km
Land use arable land: 23.94%

permanent crops: 0.39%

other: 75.67% (includes Belgium) (2005)
Languages Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)
Legal system based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 13 June 2004 (next to be held by June 2009)

election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 36.1%, LSAP 23.4%, DP 16.1%, Green Party 11.6%, ADR 10%, other 2.8%; seats by party - CSV 24, LSAP 14, DP 10, Green Party 7, ADR 5

note: there is also a Council of State that serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies; the Council of State has 21 members appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister
Life expectancy at birth total population: 79.03 years

male: 75.76 years

female: 82.52 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 100%

male: 100%

female: 100% (2000 est.)
Location Western Europe, between France and Germany
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total: 45 ships (1000 GRT or over) 682,955 GRT/858,985 DWT

by type: bulk carrier 7, chemical tanker 14, container 7, liquefied gas 2, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 7

foreign-owned: 44 (Belgium 9, France 14, Germany 10, Netherlands 1, UK 7, US 3) (2007)
Military branches Army
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.9% (2005 est.)
National holiday National Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte) 23 June; note - the actual date of birth was 23 January 1896, but the festivities were shifted by five months to allow observance during a more favorable time of year
Nationality noun: Luxembourger(s)

adjective: Luxembourg
Natural hazards NA
Natural resources iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land
Net migration rate 8.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines gas 155 km (2007)
Political parties and leaders Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Robert MENLEN]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Francois BILTGEN] (also known as Christian Social Party or PCS); Democratic Party or DP [Claude MEISCH]; Green Party [Francois BAUSCH]; Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Alex BODRY]; dei Lenk/la Gauche (the Left); other minor parties
Political pressure groups and leaders ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); Greenpeace (environment protection); LCGP (center-right trade union); Mouvement Ecologique (protection of ecology); OGBL (center-left trade union)
Population 480,222 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 1.207% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)
Railways total: 275 km

standard gauge: 275 km 1.435-m gauge (243 km electrified) (2006)
Religions Roman Catholic 87%, other (includes Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 13% (2000)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.065 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.682 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Telephone system general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables

domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; market for mobile-cellular phones is virtually saturated with roughly 150 cellular phones per 100 persons

international: country code - 352
Telephones - main lines in use 246,700 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 713,800 (2006)
Television broadcast stations 5 (1999)
Terrain mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast
Total fertility rate 1.78 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 4.4% (2007 est.)
Waterways 37 km (on Moselle River) (2007)
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