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Luxembourg (2001)

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Luxembourg 2001 year

Administrative divisions 3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg
Age structure 0-14 years:
18.91% (male 43,051; female 40,711)

15-64 years:
67.03% (male 149,781; female 147,165)

65 years and over:
14.06% (male 24,921; female 37,343) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine grapes; livestock products
Airports 2 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Area total:
2,586 sq km

2,586 sq km

0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Background Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both World Wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union) and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.
Birth rate 12.25 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$5.6 billion

$5.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Capital Luxembourg
Climate modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 17 October 1868, occasional revisions
Country name conventional long form:
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

conventional short form:

local long form:
Grand Duche de Luxembourg

local short form:
Currency Luxembourg franc (LUF); euro (EUR)

on 1 January 1999, the EU introduced the euro as a common currency that is now being used by financial institutions in Luxembourg at a fixed rate of 40.3399 Luxembourg francs per euro and will replace the local currency for all transactions in 2002
Death rate 8.88 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $NA
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador James C. HORMEL

22 Boulevard Emmanuel-Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City

mailing address:
American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)

[352] 46 01 23

[352] 46 14 01
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Arlette CONZEMIUS

2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

[1] (202) 265-4171

[1] (202) 328-8270

consulate(s) general:
New York and San Francisco
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - donor ODA, $160 million (1999)
Economy - overview The stable, high-income economy features solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. Growth in the financial sector has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Services, especially banking, account for a substantial proportion of the economy. Agriculture is based on small family-owned farms. The economy depends on foreign and trans-border workers for 30% of its labor force. Luxembourg has a custom union with Belgium and the Netherlands, and, as a member of the EU, enjoys the advantages of the open European market. It joined with 10 other EU members to launch the euro on 1 January 1999.
Electricity - consumption 6.149 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 655 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 6.201 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 648 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



10.03% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Moselle River 133 m

highest point:
Buurgplaatz 559 m
Environment - current issues air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland
Environment - international agreements party to:
Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified:
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Environmental Modification
Ethnic groups Celtic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese, Italian, Slavs (from Montenegro, Albania, and Kososvo) and European (guest and resident workers)
Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.0659 (January 2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Luxembourg francs per US dollar - 34.77 (January 1999), 36.299 (1998), 35.774 (1997), 30.962 (1996); note - the Luxembourg franc is at par with the Belgian franc, which circulates freely in Luxembourg
Executive branch chief of state:
Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981);

head of government:
Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 1 January 1995) and Vice Prime Minister Lydie POLFER (since 7 August 1999)

Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch

none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister and vice prime minister appointed by the monarch, following popular election to the Chamber of Deputies; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies

government coalition - CSV and DP
Exports 655 million kWh (1999)
Exports $7.6 billion (f.o.b., 2000)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass
Exports - partners EU 75% (Germany 25%, France 21%, Belgium 13%, UK 8%, Italy 6%, Netherlands 5%), US 4% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France
GDP purchasing power parity - $15.9 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


69% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $36,400 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.7% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 49 45 N, 6 10 E
Geography - note landlocked
Heliports 1 (2000 est.)
Highways total:
5,166 km

5,166 km (including 118 km of expressways)

0 km (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
Imports 6.201 billion kWh (1999)
Imports $10 billion (c.i.f., 2000)
Imports - commodities minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods
Imports - partners EU 81% (Belgium 35%, Germany 26%, France 12%, Netherlands 4%), US 9% (1999)
Independence 1839 (from the Netherlands)
Industrial production growth rate 7.8% (2000 est.)
Industries banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum
Infant mortality rate 4.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 7.8% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ACCT, Australia Group, Benelux, CCC, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NATO, NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 8 (2000)
Irrigated land 10 sq km (including Belgium) (1993 est.)
Judicial branch judicial courts and tribunals (3 Justices of the Peace, 2 district courts, and 1 Supreme Court of Appeals); administrative courts and tribunals (State Prosecutor's Office, administrative courts and tribunals, and the Constitutional Court); judges for all courts are appointed for life by the monarch
Labor force 248,000 (of whom 70,200 are foreign cross-border workers primarily from France, Belgium, and Germany) (2000)
Labor force - by occupation services 83.2%, industry 14.3%, agriculture 2.5% (1998 est.)
Land boundaries total:
356 km

border countries:
Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 135 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

Languages Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)
Legal system based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)

last held 13 June 1999 (next to be held by NA June 2004)

election results:
percent of vote by party - CSV 29.79%, DP 21.58%, LSAP 23.75%, ADR 10.36%, Green Party 9.09%, the Left 3.77%; seats by party - CSV 19, DP 15, LSAP 13, ADR 6, Green Party 5, the Left 2

the Council of State or Conseil d'Etat, which has 21 members who are appointed and dismissed by the Grand Duke based on proposals from the government, the Chamber of Deputies, or the Council of State, is an advisory body whose views are considered by the Chamber of Deputies
Life expectancy at birth total population:
77.3 years

74.02 years

80.8 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


100% (2000 est.)
Location Western Europe, between France and Germany
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total:
50 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 988,450 GRT/1,313,498 DWT

ships by type:
bulk 2, chemical tanker 11, container 2, liquefied gas 18, passenger 4, petroleum tanker 6, roll on/roll off 7

includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 4 (2000 est.)
Military branches Army; note - the government abolished the Gendarmerie
Military expenditures - dollar figure $131 million (FY98/99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1% (FY98/99)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
112,714 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
92,817 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 19 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
2,565 (2001 est.)
National holiday National Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte) 23 June
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards NA
Natural resources iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land
Net migration rate 9.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines petroleum products 48 km
Political parties and leaders Action Committee for Democracy and Justice or ADR [Robert MEHLEN]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV (known also as Christian Social Party or PCS) [Erna HENNICOT-SCHOEPGES]; Democratic Party or DP [Lydie POLFER]; Green Party [Abbes JACOBY and Felix BRAS]; Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Jean ASSELBORN]; Marxist and Reformed Communist Party DEI LENK (the Left) [no formal leadership]; other minor parties
Political pressure groups and leaders ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); LCGP (center-right trade union); OGBL (center-left trade union)
Population 442,972 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 1.26% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Mertert
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)
Radios 285,000 (1997)
Railways total:
274 km

standard gauge:
274 km 1.435-m gauge (242 km electrified; 178 km double track) (1998)
Religions the greatest preponderance of the population is Roman Catholic with a very few Protestants, Jews, and Muslims

1979 legislation forbids the collection of religious statistics
Sex ratio at birth:
1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.67 male(s)/female

total population:
0.97 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Telephone system general assessment:
highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables

nationwide cellular telephone system; buried cable

3 channels leased on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable (Europe to North America)
Telephones - main lines in use 314,700 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 215,741 (2000)
Television broadcast stations 5 (1999)
Terrain mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast
Total fertility rate 1.7 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 2.7% (2000 est.)
Waterways 37 km (on the Moselle)
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