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Luxembourg (2002)

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Luxembourg 2002 year

Administrative divisions 3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg
Age structure 0-14 years: 18.9% (male 43,634; female 41,164)

15-64 years: 67% (male 151,364; female 149,156)

65 years and over: 14.1% (male 25,486; female 37,765) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine grapes; livestock products
Airports 2 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 1

over 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 1

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Area total: 2,586 sq km

land: 2,586 sq km

water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Background Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both World Wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union) and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.
Birth rate 12.06 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $5.5 billion

expenditures: $5.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $760 million $NA (2002 est.)
Capital Luxembourg
Climate modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 17 October 1868, occasional revisions
Country name conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

conventional short form: Luxembourg

local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg

local short form: Luxembourg
Currency euro (EUR); Luxembourg franc (LUF)

note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Death rate 8.83 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $NA
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Peter TERPELUK, Jr.

embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel-Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City

mailing address: American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)

telephone: [352] 46 01 23

FAX: [352] 46 14 01
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Arlette CONZEMIUS-PACCOURD

chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171

FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270

consulate(s) general: New York and San Francisco
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - donor ODA, $160 million (1999)
Economy - overview This stable, high-income economy features solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. Growth in the financial sector, which now accounts for about 22% of GDP, has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Most banks are foreign-owned and have extensive foreign dealings. Agriculture is based on small family-owned farms. The economy depends on foreign and trans-border workers for 30% of its labor force. Although Luxembourg, like all EU members, has suffered from the global economic slump, the country has maintained a fairly strong growth rate.
Electricity - consumption 6.158 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 735 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 6.458 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 467.7 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 58%

hydro: 26%

nuclear: 0%

other: 17% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Moselle River 133 m

highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m
Environment - current issues air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Environmental Modification
Ethnic groups Celtic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese, Italian, Slavs (from Montenegro, Albania, and Kososvo) and European (guest and resident workers)
Exchange rates euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Luxembourg francs per US dollar - 34.77 (January 1999), 36.299 (1998), 35.774 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)

head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 1 January 1995) and Vice Prime Minister Lydie POLFER (since 7 August 1999)

cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch

elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the deputy prime minister is appointed by the monarch; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies

note: government coalition - CSV and DP
Exports 735 million kWh (2000)
Exports $7.85 billion f.o.b. (2000)
Exports - commodities machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass
Exports - partners EU 84.7% (Germany 24.6%, France 19.6%, Belgium 12.3%), US 3.5% (2001)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France
GDP purchasing power parity - $20 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 1%

industry: 30%

services: 69% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $44,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.3% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 49 45 N, 6 10 E
Geography - note landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world, it is the smallest of the European Union member states
Heliports 1 (2002)
Highways total: 5,166 km

paved: 5,166 km (including 118 km of expressways)

unpaved: 0 km (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Imports 6.458 billion kWh (2000)
Imports $10.25 billion c.i.f. (2000)
Imports - commodities minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods
Imports - partners EU 86.7% (Belgium 34.3%, Germany 25.1%, France 12.8%), US 5.8% (2001)
Independence 1839 (from the Netherlands)
Industrial production growth rate 2% (2002 est.)
Industries banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum
Infant mortality rate 4.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.6% (2002 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 8 (2000)
Irrigated land 40 sq km (includes Belgium) (1998 est.)
Judicial branch judicial courts and tribunals (3 Justices of the Peace, 2 district courts, and 1 Supreme Court of Appeals); administrative courts and tribunals (State Prosecutor's Office, administrative courts and tribunals, and the Constitutional Court); judges for all courts are appointed for life by the monarch
Labor force 262,300 (of whom 87,400 are foreign cross-border workers primarily from France, Belgium, and Germany) (2000)
Labor force - by occupation services 90%, industry 8%, agriculture 2% (1999 est.)
Land boundaries total: 359 km

border countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km
Land use arable land: 25%

permanent crops: 0%

other: 75% (includes Belgium) (1998 est.)
Languages Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)
Legal system based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 13 June 1999 (next to be held by June 2004)

election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 29.79%, DP 21.58%, LSAP 23.75%, ADR 10.36%, Green Party 9.09%, the Left 3.77%; seats by party - CSV 19, DP 15, LSAP 13, ADR 6, Green Party 5, the Left 2

note: there is also a Council of State that serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies; the Council of State has 21 members appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister
Life expectancy at birth total population: 77.48 years

male: 74.2 years

female: 80.97 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 100%

male: 100%

female: 100% (2000 est.)
Location Western Europe, between France and Germany
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Merchant marine total: 60 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,487,752 GRT/2,123,579 DWT

ships by type: bulk 2, chemical tanker 13, container 8, liquefied gas 19, passenger 4, petroleum tanker 8, roll on/roll off 6

note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 21, Finland 3, France 8, Germany 10, Monaco 1, Netherlands 3, Norway 1, United Kingdom 9, United States 3 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army, Grand Ducal Police
Military expenditures - dollar figure $147.8 million (FY01/02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.8% (FY01/02)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 113,557 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 93,429 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - military age 19 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 2,565 (2002 est.)
National holiday National Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte) 23 June
Nationality noun: Luxembourger(s)

adjective: Luxembourg
Natural hazards NA
Natural resources iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land
Net migration rate 9.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines petroleum products 48 km
Political parties and leaders Action Committee for Democracy and Justice or ADR [Robert MEHLEN]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV (known also as Christian Social Party or PCS) [Erna HENNICOT-SCHOEPGES]; Democratic Party or DP [Lydie POLFER]; Green Party [Abbes JACOBY and Felix BRAS]; Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Jean ASSELBORN]; Marxist and Reformed Communist Party DEI LENK (the Left) [no formal leadership]; other minor parties
Political pressure groups and leaders ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); LCGP (center-right trade union); OGBL (center-left trade union)
Population 448,569 (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line NA%
Population growth rate 1.25% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Mertert
Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)
Radios 285,000 (1997)
Railways total: 274 km

standard gauge: 274 km 1.435-m gauge (242 km electrified) (2001)
Religions the greatest preponderance of the population is Roman Catholic with a very few Protestants, Jews, and Muslims

note: 1979 legislation forbids the collection of religious statistics
Sex ratio at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Telephone system general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables

domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; buried cable

international: 3 channels leased on TAT-6 coaxial submarine cable (Europe to North America)
Telephones - main lines in use 314,700 (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular 215,741 (2000)
Television broadcast stations 5 (1999)
Terrain mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast
Total fertility rate 1.7 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 4.1% (2002 est.)
Waterways 37 km (on the Moselle)
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