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Zambia (2008)

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Zambia 2008 year

Administrative divisions 9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
Age structure 0-14 years: 45.7% (male 2,633,578/female 2,608,714)

15-64 years: 51.9% (male 2,969,913/female 2,990,923)

65 years and over: 2.4% (male 116,818/female 157,501) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seed, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides
Airports 107 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 9

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 98

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 64

under 914 m: 29 (2007)
Area total: 752,614 sq km

land: 740,724 sq km

water: 11,890 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Texas
Background The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the [British] South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule, but the subsequent vote in 1996 saw blatant harassment of opposition parties. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. The new president launched an anticorruption investigation in 2002 to probe high-level corruption during the previous administration. In 2006-2007, this task force successfully prosecuted four cases, including a landmark civil case in the UK in which former President CHILUBA and numerous others were found liable for USD 41 million. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair.
Birth rate 40.78 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $2.508 billion

expenditures: $2.838 billion (2007 est.)
Capital name: Lusaka

geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Climate tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 24 August 1991; amended in 1996 to establish presidential term limits
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Zambia

conventional short form: Zambia

former: Northern Rhodesia
Death rate 21.46 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $2.798 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Carmen M. MARTINEZ

embassy: corner of Independence and United Nations Avenues, Lusaka

mailing address: P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka

telephone: [260] (1) 250-955

FAX: [260] (1) 252-225
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Inonge MBIKUSITA-LEWANIKA

chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719

FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
Disputes - international in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river; 42,250 Congolese refugees in Zambia are offered voluntary repatriation in November 2006, most of whom are expected to return in the next two years; Angolan refugees too have been repatriating but 26,450 still remain with 90,000 others from other neighboring states in 2006
Economic aid - recipient $504 million (2007)
Economy - overview Zambia's economy has experienced modest growth in recent years, with real GDP growth in 2005-07 between 5-6% per year. Privatization of government-owned copper mines in the 1990s relieved the government from covering mammoth losses generated by the industry and greatly improved the chances for copper mining to return to profitability and spur economic growth. Copper output has increased steadily since 2004, due to higher copper prices and foreign investment. In 2005, Zambia qualified for debt relief under the Highly Indebted Poor Country Initiative, consisting of approximately USD 6 billion in debt relief. Zambia experienced a bumper harvest in 2007, which helped to boost GDP and agricultural exports and contain inflation. Although poverty continues to be significant problem in Zambia, its economy has strengthened, featuring single-digit inflation, a relatively stable currency, decreasing interest rates, and increasing levels of trade.
Electricity - consumption 8.655 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 243 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 465 million kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 8.85 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m

highest point: unnamed location in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
Environment - current issues air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups African 98.7%, European 1.1%, other 0.2%
Exchange rates Zambian kwacha per US dollar - 3,990.2 (2007), 3,601.5 (2006), 4,463.5 (2005), 4,778.9 (2004), 4,733.3 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Levy MWANAWASA (since 2 January 2002); Vice President Rupiah BANDA (since 9 October 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Levy MWANAWASA (since 2 January 2002); Vice President Rupiah BANDA (since 9 October 2006)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 28 September 2006 (next to be held in 2011); vice president appointed by the president

election results: Levy MWANAWASA reelected president; percent of vote - Levy MWANAWASA 43.0%, Michael SATA 29.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA 25.3%, Godfrey MIYANDA 1.6%, Winright NGONDO 0.8%
Exports 243 million kWh (2005)
Exports $4.017 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 169 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities copper/cobalt 64%, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton
Exports - partners Switzerland 38.4%, South Africa 21.6%, China 10.3%, UK 7.6%, Tanzania 6.4% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description green with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 17.6%

industry: 26%

services: 56.5% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 6% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 15 00 S, 30 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.2%

highest 10%: 38.8% (2004)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers; major consumer of cannabis
Imports 465 million kWh (2005)
Imports $2.993 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2005)
Imports 13,370 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer; foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partners South Africa 47.3%, UAE 10.4%, Zimbabwe 5.7%, Norway 4% (2006)
Independence 24 October 1964 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 6.2% (2007 est.)
Industries copper mining and processing, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
Infant mortality rate total: 100.71 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 105.48 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 95.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 8.9% (2007 est.)
Irrigated land 1,560 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (the final court of appeal; justices are appointed by the president); High Court (has unlimited jurisdiction to hear civil and criminal cases)
Labor force 4.989 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 85%

industry: 6%

services: 9% (2004)
Land boundaries total: 5,664 km

border countries: Angola 1,110 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,930 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zimbabwe 797 km
Land use arable land: 6.99%

permanent crops: 0.04%

other: 92.97% (2005)
Languages English (official), major vernaculars - Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga, and about 70 other indigenous languages
Legal system based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly (158 seats; 150 members are elected by popular vote, 8 members are appointed by the president, to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 28 September 2006 (next to be held in 2011)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MMD 72, PF 44, UDA 27, ULP 2, NDF 1, independents 2; seats not determined 2
Life expectancy at birth total population: 38.44 years

male: 38.34 years

female: 38.54 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write English

total population: 80.6%

male: 86.8%

female: 74.8% (2003 est.)
Location Southern Africa, east of Angola
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Zambian National Defense Force (ZNDF): Army, Air Force, Police, National Service
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.8% (2005 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
Nationality noun: Zambian(s)

adjective: Zambian
Natural hazards periodic drought, tropical storms (November to April)
Natural resources copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
Net migration rate -2.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines oil 771 km (2007)
Political parties and leaders All Peoples Congress Party [Winright NGONDO]; Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]; Heritage Party or HP [Godfrey MIYANDA]; Liberal Progressive Front or LPF [Roger CHONGWE]; Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Levy MWANAWASA]; National Democratic Focus or NDF; Patriotic Front or PF [Michael SATA]; Party of Unity for Democracy and Development or PUDD [Dan PULE]; Reform Party [Nevers MUMBA]; United Democratic Alliance or UDA; United Liberal Party or ULP [Sakwiba SIKOTA]; United National Independence Party or UNIP [Tilyenji KAUNDA]; United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]; Zambia Democratic Congress or ZADECO [Langton SICHONE]; Zambian Republican Party or ZRP [Benjamin MWILA]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 11,477,447

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 86% (1993)
Population growth rate 1.664% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 19, FM 5, shortwave 4 (2001)
Railways total: 2,157 km

narrow gauge: 2,157 km 1.067-m gauge

note: includes 891 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (2006)
Religions Christian 50%-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24%-49%, indigenous beliefs 1%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.993 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.742 male(s)/female

total population: 0.994 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: facilities are aging but still among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa

domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation and network coverage is improving; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms

international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 93,400 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1,663,300 (2006)
Television broadcast stations 9 (2001)
Terrain mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
Total fertility rate 5.31 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 50% (2000 est.)
Waterways 2,250 km (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula rivers) (2005)
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