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Zambia (2002)

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Zambia 2002 year

Administrative divisions 9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
Age structure 0-14 years: 47.1% (male 2,357,581; female 2,335,644)

15-64 years: 50.4% (male 2,497,360; female 2,519,227)

65 years and over: 2.5% (male 106,160; female 143,065) (2002 est.)
Agriculture - products corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seed, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca); cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides; coffee
Airports 111 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways total: 11

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 2

under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 98

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 4

914 to 1,523 m: 63

under 914 m: 30 (2002)
Area total: 752,614 sq km

land: 740,724 sq km

water: 11,890 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Texas
Background The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule, but the subsequent vote in 1996 saw blatant harassment of opposition parties. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems with at least two parties filing legal petitions challenging the results. Opposition parties currently hold a majority of seats in the National Assembly.
Birth rate 41.01 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budget revenues: $1.2 billion

expenditures: $1.25 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Capital Lusaka
Climate tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution 2 August 1991
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Zambia

conventional short form: Zambia

former: Northern Rhodesia
Currency Zambian kwacha (ZMK)
Death rate 21.89 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Debt - external $5.8 billion (2001)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Martin George BRENNAN

embassy: corner of Independence and United Nations Avenues

mailing address: P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka

telephone: [260] (1) 250-955

FAX: [260] (1) 252-225
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Dunstan Weston KAMANA

chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719

FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $651 million (2000 est.)
Economy - overview Despite progress in privatization and budgetary reform, Zambia's economy has a long way to go. Privatization of government-owned copper mines relieved the government from covering mammoth losses generated by the industry and greatly improved the chances for copper mining to return to profitability and spur economic growth. However, low mineral prices have slowed the benefits from privatizing the mines and reduced incentives for further private investment in the sector. In late 2000, Zambia was determined to be eligible for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative, but Zambia has not yet finalized its Poverty Reduction Strategy paper. Unemployment rates remain high, but GDP growth should continue at about 4%. Inflation should remain close to 20%.
Electricity - consumption 5.838 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports 1.536 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports 100 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production 7.822 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 1%

hydro: 99%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0% (2000)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Zambezi river 329 m

highest point: unnamed location in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
Environment - current issues air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
Environment - international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups African 98.7%, European 1.1%, other 0.2%
Exchange rates Zambian kwacha per US dollar - 3,848.65 (January 2002), 3,610.94 (2001), 3,110.84 (2000), 2,388.02 (1999), 1,862.07 (1998), 1,314.50 (1997)
Executive branch chief of state: President Levy MWANAWASA (since 2 January 2002); Vice President Enoch KAVINDELE (since 4 May 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Levy MWANAWASA (since 2 January 2002); Vice President Enoch KAVINDELE (since 4 May 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 27 December 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); vice president appointed by the president

election results: Levy MWANAWASA elected president; percent of vote - Levy MWANAWASA 29%, Anderson MAZOKA 27%, Christon TEMBO 13%, Tilyenji KAUNDA 10%, Godfrey MIYANDA 8%, Benjamin MWILA 5%, Michael SATA 3%
Exports 1.536 billion kWh (2000)
Exports $876 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities copper 55%, cobalt, electricity, tobacco, flowers, cotton
Exports - partners UK 25.2%, South Africa 24.5%, Switzerland 9.4%, Malawi 7.5% (2000)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description green with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag
GDP purchasing power parity - $8.5 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 24%

industry: 25%

services: 51% (2000)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $870 (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.9% (2001 est.)
Geographic coordinates 15 00 S, 30 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe
Highways total: 66,781 km

paved: NA km

unpaved: NA km (1997 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1%

highest 10%: 41% (1998)
Illicit drugs transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for Southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers
Imports 100 million kWh (2000)
Imports $12.05 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer; foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partners South Africa 67.1%, UK 9.8%, Zimbabwe 7.5%, US 5.9% (2000)
Independence 24 October 1964 (from UK)
Industrial production growth rate 5.1% (2001 est.)
Industries copper mining and processing, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
Infant mortality rate 89.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 21.5% (2001)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 5 (2001)
Irrigated land 460 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court (the final court of appeal; justices are appointed by the president); High Court (has unlimited jurisdiction to hear civil and criminal cases)
Labor force 3.4 million
Labor force - by occupation agriculture 85%, industry 6%, services 9%
Land boundaries total: 5,664 km

border countries: Angola 1,110 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,930 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zimbabwe 797 km
Land use arable land: 7.08%

permanent crops: 0.03%

other: 92.89% (1998 est.)
Languages English (official), major vernaculars - Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga, and about 70 other indigenous languages
Legal system based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral National Assembly (150 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 27 December 2001 (next to be held NA 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - MMD 45.9%, UPND 32.4%, UNIP 8.8%, FDD 8.1%, HP 2.7%, PF 0.7%, ZRP 0.7%, independents 0.7%; seats by party - MMD 68, UPND 48, UNIP 13, FDD 12, HP 4, PF 1, ZRP 1, independents 1; seats not determined 2
Life expectancy at birth total population: 37.35 years

male: 37.05 years

female: 37.66 years (2002 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write English

total population: 78.9%

male: 85.7%

female: 72.6%
Location Southern Africa, east of Angola
Map references Africa
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army, Air Force, Police, paramilitary forces
Military expenditures - dollar figure $32.5 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 0.9% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 2,313,567 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 1,228,385 (2002 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
Nationality noun: Zambian(s)

adjective: Zambian
Natural hazards tropical storms (November to April)
Natural resources copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
Net migration rate -0.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 1,724 km
Political parties and leaders Agenda for Zambia or AZ [Inonge MBIKUSITA-LEWANIKA]; Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Christon TEMBO]; Heritage Party or HP [Godfrey MIYANDA]; Liberal Progressive Front or LPF [Roger CHONGWE, president]; Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Frederick CHILUBA, president]; National Citizens Coalition or NCC [Nevers MUMBA, president]; National Leadership for Development or NLD [Yobert SHAMAPANDE]; National Party or NP [Dr. Sam CHIPUNGU]; Patriotic Front or PF [Michael SATA]; Zambian Republican Party or ZRP [Benjamin MWILA]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Gwendoline Konie]; United National Independence Party or UNIP [Francis NKHOMA, president]; United Party for National Development or UPND [Anderson MAZOKA]
Political pressure groups and leaders NA
Population 9,959,037

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Population below poverty line 86% (1993 est.)
Population growth rate 1.9% (2002 est.)
Ports and harbors Mpulungu
Radio broadcast stations AM 19, FM 5, shortwave 4 (2001)
Radios 1.2 million (2001)
Railways total: 2,157 km

narrow gauge: 2,157 km 1.067-m gauge (13 km double-track)

note: the total includes 891 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA), which operates 1,860 km of 1.067-m narrow gauge track between Dar es Salaam and Kapiri Mposhi where it connects to the Zambia Railways system; TAZARA is not a part of the Zambia Railways system; Zambia Railways assets are scheduled for concessioning (2002)
Religions Christian 50%-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24%-49%, indigenous beliefs 1%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: facilities are aging but still among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa

domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)
Telephones - main lines in use 130,000 (including more than 40,000 fixed telephones in wireless local loop connections) (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular 75,000 (2001)
Television broadcast stations 9 (2002)
Terrain mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
Total fertility rate 5.43 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate 50% (2000 est.)
Waterways 2,250 km

note: includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula rivers
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