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Peru (2008)

Peru - wybierz rok:
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PeruPeru (2007) (porownaj)

Porownaj z innymi popularnymi panstwami

Peru 2008 roku

Podzial administracyjny 25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 30.3% (male 4,427,080/female 4,271,390)

15-64 years: 64.2% (male 9,267,642/female 9,150,816)

65 years and over: 5.4% (male 734,533/female 823,296) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo asparagus, coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products; fish, guinea pigs
Lotniska 237 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 54

over 3,047 m: 6

2,438 to 3,047 m: 20

1,524 to 2,437 m: 14

914 to 1,523 m: 11

under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 183

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 24

914 to 1,523 m: 40

under 914 m: 117 (2007)
Terytorium total: 1,285,220 sq km

land: 1.28 million sq km

water: 5,220 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Alaska
Tlo historyczne Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadors w 1533. Peruvian independence was declared w 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated w 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership w 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election w 1990 ushered w a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround w the economy and significant progress w curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump w the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction z his regime, which led to his ouster w 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections w the spring of 2001, which ushered w Alejandro TOLEDO as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of Native American ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, returned to the presidency z promises to improve social conditions and maintain fiscal responsibility.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 20.09 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $30.35 billion

expenditures: $29.8 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Lima

geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W

time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Klimat varies from tropical w east to dry desert w west; temperate to frigid w Andes
Linia brzegowa 2,414 km
Konstytucja 29 grudzien 1993
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Peru

conventional short form: Peru

local long form: Republica del Peru

local short form: Peru
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.21 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $27.81 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador J. Curtis STRUBLE

embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33

mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000

telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000

FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Felipe ORTIZ de Zevallos

chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869

FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Denver, Hartford, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, Washington, DC
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Chile and Ekwador rejected Peru's listopad 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations w Kolumbia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Boliwia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $397.8 million (2005)
Ekonomia Peru's economy reflects its varied geography - an arid coastal region, the Andes further inland, and tropical lands bordering Kolumbia and Brazylia. Abundant mineral resources are found w the mountainous areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. However, overdependence on minerals and metals subjects the economy to fluctuations w world prices, and a lack of infrastructure deters trade and investment. After several years of inconsistent economic performance, the Peruvian economy grew by more than 4% per year during the period 2002-06, z a stable exchange rate and low inflation. Growth jumped to 7.5% w 2007, driven by higher world prices dla minerals and metals. Risk premiums on Peruvian bonds on secondary markets reached historically low levels w late 2004, reflecting investor optimism regarding the government's prudent fiscal policies and openness to trade and investment. Despite the strong macroeconomic performance, underemployment and poverty have stayed persistently high. Growth prospects depend on exports of minerals, textiles, and agricultural products, and by expectations dla the Camisea natural gas megaproject and dla other promising energy projects. Upon taking office, President GARCIA announced Sierra Exportadora, a program aimed at promoting economic growth w Peru's southern and central highlands.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 22.59 billion kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 24.97 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Spokojny 0 m

highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution w Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japoniaese, Chinese, and other 3%
Kurs waluty nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.1731 (2007), 3.2742 (2006), 3.2958 (2005), 3.4132 (2004), 3.4785 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 lipiec 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas; Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 lipiec 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 lipiec 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas; Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 lipiec 2006)

note: Prime Minister Jorge DEL CASTILLO Galvez (since 28 sierpien 2006) does not exercise executive power; this power is w the hands of the president

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a nonconsecutive reelection); presidential and congressional elections held 9 kwiecien 2006 z runoff election held 4 czerwiec 2006; next to be held w kwiecien 2011

election results: Alan GARCIA elected president w runoff election; percent of vote - Alan GARCIA 52.5%, Ollanta HUMALA Tasso 47.5%
Eksport 0 kWh (2005)
Eksport $27.14 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 53,040 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Eksport - towary copper, gold, zinc, crude petroleum and petroleum products, coffee, potatoes, asparagus, textiles, guinea pigs
Eksport - partnerzy US 24.1%, Chiny 9.6%, Szwajcaria 7.1%, Kanada 6.8%, Chile 6%, Japonia 5.2% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red z the coat of arms centered w the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 8.4%

industry: 25.6%

services: 66% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 7.5% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 10 00 S, 76 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, z Boliwia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2007)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 1.3%

highest 10%: 40.9% (2003)
Narkotyki until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru is now the world's second largest producer of coca leaf, though it lags far behind Kolumbia; cultivation of coca w Peru rose 25% to 34,000 hectares w 2005; much of the cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Kolumbia dla processing into cocaine, while finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazylia and Boliwia dla use w the Southern Cone or transshipped to Europe and Africa
Import 0 kWh (2005)
Import $18.75 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2005)
Import 121,500 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary petroleum and petroleum products, plastics, machinery, vehicles, iron and steel, wheat, paper
Import - partnerzy US 16.5%, Chiny 10.3%, Brazylia 10.3%, Ekwador 7.2%, Kolumbia 6.1%, Chile 5.8%, Argentyna 4.8%, Meksyk 4% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 28 lipiec 1821 (from Hiszpania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 5% (2007 est.)
Przemysl mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas; fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 29.96 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 32.47 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 27.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 3.5% (2007 est.)
Nawadniane tereny 12,000 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)
Sila robocza 9.419 million (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 9%

industry: 18%

services: 73% (2001)
Granica total: 7,461 km

border countries: Boliwia 1,075 km, Brazylia 2,995 km, Chile 171 km, Kolumbia 1,800 km, Ekwador 1,420 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 2.88%

permanent crops: 0.47%

other: 96.65% (2005)
Jezyki Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages
System prawny based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 9 kwiecien 2006 (next to be held w kwiecien 2011)

election results: percent of vote by party - UPP 21.2%, PAP 20.6%, UN 15.3%, AF 13.1%, FC 7.1%, PP 4.1%, RN 4.0%, other 14.6%; seats by party - UPP 45, PAP 36, UN 17, AF 13, FC 5, PP 2, RN 2
Zywotnosc total population: 70.14 years

male: 68.33 years

female: 72.04 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 87.7%

male: 93.5%

female: 82.1% (2004 est.)
Lokalizacja Western South America, bordering the South Ocean Spokojny, between Chile and Ekwador
Lokalizacja na mapie South America
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm
Flota handlowa total: 6 ships (1000 GRT or over) 76,220 GRT/119,615 DWT

by type: cargo 3, petroleum tanker 3

foreign-owned: 1 (US 1)

registered w other countries: 16 (Belize 1, Panama 15) (2007)
Wojsko Peruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP (includes naval air, naval infantry, and coast guard)), Peruvian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP) (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.5% (2006)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 28 lipiec (1821)
Narodowosc noun: Peruvian(s)

adjective: Peruvian
Naturalne zagrozenia earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
Surowce naturalne copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 1,181 km; gas/liquid petroleum gas 61 km; liquid natural gas 106 km; liquid petroleum gas 517 km; oil 1,749 km; refined products 13 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Alliance For Progress (Alianza Para El Progreso) [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]; Alliance For The Future (Alianza Por El Futuro) or AF (a coalition of pro-FUJIMORI parties including Cambio 90, Nueva majoria, and Si Cumple); Centrist Front (Frente Del Centro) or FC (a coalition of Accion Popular, Somos Peru, and Coordinadora Nacional de Independientes); Independent Moralizing Front (Frente Independiente Moralizador) or FIM; National Renovation Party (Partido Renovacion Nacional) [Rafael REY]; National Restoration (Restauracion Nacional) or RN [Humberto LAY Sun]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN (a coalition of Partido Popular Cristiano and Partido Solidaridad Nacional) [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Possible (Peru Posible) or PP [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]; Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Alan GARCIA] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA); Peruvian Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista Peruano) or PNP [Ollanta HUMALA Tasso]; Union dla Peru (Union por el Peru) or UPP [Aldo ESTRADA Choque]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]
Ludnosc 28,674,757 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 44.5% (2006)
Przyrost naturalny 1.289% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)
Linie kolejowe total: 1,989 km

standard gauge: 1,726 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 263 km 0.914-m gauge (2006)
Religie Roman Catholic 81%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.4%, other Christian 0.7%, other 0.6%, unspecified or none 16.3% (2003 est.)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.036 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.013 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.892 male(s)/female

total population: 1.013 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70; note - dla the first time w recent elections, members of the military and national police were eligible to vote w the 2006 elections
System telefoniczny general assessment: adequate dla most requirements

domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 8 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, has increased to about 30 telephones per 100 persons; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system z 12 earth stations

international: country code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 2.332 million (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 8.5 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes w center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.46 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 7.4% w metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment (2007 est.)
Drogi wodne 8,808 km

note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca (2007)
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