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Peru (2001)

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Peru 2001 roku

Podzial administracyjny 24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali

the 1979 constitution mandated the creation of regions (regiones, singular - region) to function eventually as autonomous economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted from 23 of the 24 departments - Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge z the department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the central government and organizational and political difficulties, the regions have yet to assume major responsibilities; the 1993 constitution retains the regions but limits their authority; the 1993 constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal governments
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years:
34.41% (male 4,803,464; female 4,654,890)

15-64 years:
60.8% (male 8,408,210; female 8,302,943)

65 years and over:
4.79% (male 603,309; female 711,048) (2001 est.)
Rolinictwo coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat, potatoes, plantains, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products, wool; fish
Lotniska 233 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
95 (2000 est.)
Terytorium total:
1,285,220 sq km

1.28 million sq km

5,220 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Alaska
Tlo historyczne After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership w 1980. In recent years, bold reform programs and significant progress w curtailing guerrilla activity and drug trafficking have resulted w solid economic growth.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 23.9 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budzet revenues:
$8.5 billion

$9.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $2 billion (1996 est.)
Stolica Lima
Klimat varies from tropical w east to dry desert w west; temperate to frigid w Andes
Linia brzegowa 2,414 km
Konstytucja 31 grudzien 1993
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form:
Republic of Peru

conventional short form:

local long form:
Republica del Peru

local short form:
Waluta nuevo sol (PEN)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.78 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $31 billion (2000 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission:
Ambassador John HAMILTON

Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33

mailing address:
P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000

[51] (1) 434-3000

[51] (1) 434-3037
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission:
Ambassador Alfonso RIVERO Monsalve

1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

[1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869

[1] (202) 659-8124

consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje none
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $895.1 million (1995)
Ekonomia The Peruvian economy has become increasingly market-oriented, z major privatizations completed since 1990 w the mining, electricity, and telecommunications industries. Thanks to strong foreign investment and the cooperation between the FUJIMORI government and the IMF and Swiat Bank, growth was strong w 1994-97 and inflation was brought under control. In 1998, El Nino's impact on agriculture, the financial crisis w Asia, and instability w Brazyliaian markets undercut growth. And 1999 was another lean year dla Peru, z the aftermath of El Nino and the Asian financial crisis working its way through the economy. Political instability resulting from the presidential election and FUJIMORI's subsequent departure from office limited economic growth w 2000.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 17.565 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - import 1 million kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 18.886 billion kWh (1999)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel:



0.53% (1999)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point:
Ocean Spokojny 0 m

highest point:
Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution w Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to:
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:
Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol
Grupy etniczne Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japoniaese, Chinese, and other 3%
Kurs waluty nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.5230 (styczen 2001), 3.4900 (2000), 3.383 (1999), 2.930 (1998), 2.664 (1997), 2.453 (1996)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state:
President Alejandro TOLEDO (since 28 lipiec 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided dla by the Konstytucja, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Conseco (since 28 lipiec 2001) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 lipiec 2001)

head of government:
President Alejandro TOLEDO (since 28 lipiec 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided dla by the Konstytucja, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Conseco (since 28 lipiec 2001) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 lipiec 2001)

Prime Minister Roberto DANINO (since 28 lipiec 2001) does not exercise executive power; this power is w the hands of the president

Council of Ministers appointed by the president

president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; special presidential election held 8 kwiecien 2001 z runoff election 3 czerwiec 2001); next to be held NA 2006

election results:
President TOLEDO elected w runoff election; percent of vote - Alejandro TOLEDO 53.1%, Alan GARCIA 46.9%
Eksport 0 kWh (1999)
Eksport $7 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Eksport - towary fish and fish products, copper, zinc, gold, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, coffee, sugar, cotton
Eksport - partnerzy US 29%, EU 25%, Andean Community 6%, Japonia 4%, Mercosur 3% (1999)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red z the coat of arms centered w the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $123 billion (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture:


43% (1999)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,550 (2000 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 3.6% (2000 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 10 00 S, 76 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, z Boliwia
Autostrady total:
72,900 km

8,700 km

64,200 km (1999 est.)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
34.3% (1994)
Narkotyki until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru reduced the area of coca under cultivation by 64% to 34,200 hectares between 1996 and the end of 2000; much of the cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Kolumbia dla processing into cocaine dla the international drug market; increasing amounts of finished cocaine, however, are being shipped to Europe or to Brazylia and Boliwia dla use w the Southern Cone or transshipped to world markets
Import 1 million kWh (1999)
Import $7.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Import - towary machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
Import - partnerzy US 32%, EU 21%, Andean Community 6%, Mercosur 8%, Japonia 5% (1999)
Niepodleglosc 28 lipiec 1821 (from Hiszpania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 8.5% (2000 est.)
Przemysl mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 39.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflacja 3.7% (2000 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, APEC, CAN, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Dostawcy internetu 10 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 12,800 sq km (1993 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)
Sila robocza 7.6 million (1996 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture, mining and quarrying, manufacturing, construction, transport, services
Granica total:
5,536 km

border countries:
Boliwia 900 km, Brazylia 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Kolumbia 1,496 km (est.), Ekwador 1,420 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

10% (1993 est.)
Jezyki Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara
System prawny based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Democratic Constituent Congress or Congresso Constituyente Democratico (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

last held 9 kwiecien 2000 (next to be held 8 kwiecien 2001)

many congressmen defected to and then from former President FUJIMORI's coalition w 2000

election results:
percent of vote by party - Peru 2000 42.16%, Peru Possible 23.34%, FIM 7.56%, Somos Peru 7.2%, APRA 5.5%, others 14.24%; seats by party - Peru 2000 52, Peru Possible 29, FIM 9, others 30
Zywotnosc total population:
70.3 years

67.9 years

72.81 years (2001 est.)
Pismienni definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


83% (1995 est.)
Lokalizacja Western South America, bordering the South Ocean Spokojny, between Chile and Ekwador
Lokalizacja na mapie South America
Morskie obszary continental shelf:
200 NM

territorial sea:
200 NM
Flota handlowa total:
6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 40,623 GRT/61,769 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 5, petroleum tanker 1 (2000 est.)
Wojsko Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru; includes Naval Air, Marines, and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru), National Police (Policia Nacional)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $1 billion (FY00)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.9% (FY00)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49:
7,205,675 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49:
4,847,250 (2001 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 20 years of age
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males:
276,458 (2001 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 28 lipiec (1821)
Narodowosc noun:

Naturalne zagrozenia earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
Surowce naturalne copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower
Wspolczynnik migracji -1.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Rurociagi crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km
Partie polityczne i przywodcy American Popular Revolutionary Alliance or APRA [Alan GARCIA]; Andean Rebirth [Ciro GALVEZ Herreria]; Avancemos [leader NA]; Democratic Cause [Jorge SANTISTEVAN]; Independent Moralizing Front or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; National Solidarity or SN [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio]; National Unity [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru 2000 [leader NA]; Peru Posible or PP [Alejandro TOLEDO Maniquez]; Popular Action or AP [leader NA]; Popular Agrarian Front of Peru or Frepap [leader NA]; Popular Solution [Carlos BOLONA Behr]; Project Country [Mario Antonio ARRUNATEGUI]; Somos Peru or SP [Alberto ANDRADE]; Union dla Peru or UPP [leader NA]; Vamos Vecinos or VV [Absalon VASQUEZ]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]
Ludnosc 27,483,864 (lipiec 2001 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 49% (1994 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.7% (2001 est.)
Porty i stocznie Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Matarani, Paita, Puerto Maldonado, Salaverry, San Martin, Talara, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas

Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are all on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries
Stacje radiowe AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)
Radia 6.65 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total:
1,988 km

standard gauge:
1,608 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge:
380 km 0.914-m gauge
Religie Roman Catholic 90%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.85 male(s)/female

total population:
1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment:
adequate dla most requirements

nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system z 12 earth stations

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); Pan American submarine cable
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 1.509 million (1998)
Telefony komorkowe 504,995 (1998)
Stacje telewizyjne 13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes w center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.96 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 7.7%; extensive underemployment (1997)
Drogi wodne 8,808 km

8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca
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