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Peru (2001)

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Peru 2001 year

Administrative divisions 24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali

the 1979 constitution mandated the creation of regions (regiones, singular - region) to function eventually as autonomous economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted from 23 of the 24 departments - Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge with the department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the central government and organizational and political difficulties, the regions have yet to assume major responsibilities; the 1993 constitution retains the regions but limits their authority; the 1993 constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal governments
Age structure 0-14 years:
34.41% (male 4,803,464; female 4,654,890)

15-64 years:
60.8% (male 8,408,210; female 8,302,943)

65 years and over:
4.79% (male 603,309; female 711,048) (2001 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat, potatoes, plantains, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products, wool; fish
Airports 233 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
1 (2000 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total:

over 3,047 m:

2,438 to 3,047 m:

1,524 to 2,437 m:

914 to 1,523 m:

under 914 m:
95 (2000 est.)
Area total:
1,285,220 sq km

1.28 million sq km

5,220 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Alaska
Background After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980. In recent years, bold reform programs and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity and drug trafficking have resulted in solid economic growth.
Birth rate 23.9 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Budget revenues:
$8.5 billion

$9.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $2 billion (1996 est.)
Capital Lima
Climate varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
Coastline 2,414 km
Constitution 31 December 1993
Country name conventional long form:
Republic of Peru

conventional short form:

local long form:
Republica del Peru

local short form:
Currency nuevo sol (PEN)
Death rate 5.78 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Debt - external $31 billion (2000 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission:
Ambassador John HAMILTON

Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33

mailing address:
P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000

[51] (1) 434-3000

[51] (1) 434-3037
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission:
Ambassador Alfonso RIVERO Monsalve

1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

[1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869

[1] (202) 659-8124

consulate(s) general:
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco
Disputes - international none
Economic aid - recipient $895.1 million (1995)
Economy - overview The Peruvian economy has become increasingly market-oriented, with major privatizations completed since 1990 in the mining, electricity, and telecommunications industries. Thanks to strong foreign investment and the cooperation between the FUJIMORI government and the IMF and World Bank, growth was strong in 1994-97 and inflation was brought under control. In 1998, El Nino's impact on agriculture, the financial crisis in Asia, and instability in Brazilian markets undercut growth. And 1999 was another lean year for Peru, with the aftermath of El Nino and the Asian financial crisis working its way through the economy. Political instability resulting from the presidential election and FUJIMORI's subsequent departure from office limited economic growth in 2000.
Electricity - consumption 17.565 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (1999)
Electricity - imports 1 million kWh (1999)
Electricity - production 18.886 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel:



0.53% (1999)
Elevation extremes lowest point:
Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point:
Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
Environment - current issues deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Environment - international agreements party to:
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified:
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Exchange rates nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.5230 (January 2001), 3.4900 (2000), 3.383 (1999), 2.930 (1998), 2.664 (1997), 2.453 (1996)
Executive branch chief of state:
President Alejandro TOLEDO (since 28 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided for by the Constitution, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Conseco (since 28 July 2001) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 July 2001)

head of government:
President Alejandro TOLEDO (since 28 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided for by the Constitution, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Conseco (since 28 July 2001) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 July 2001)

Prime Minister Roberto DANINO (since 28 July 2001) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president

Council of Ministers appointed by the president

president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; special presidential election held 8 April 2001 with runoff election 3 June 2001); next to be held NA 2006

election results:
President TOLEDO elected in runoff election; percent of vote - Alejandro TOLEDO 53.1%, Alan GARCIA 46.9%
Exports 0 kWh (1999)
Exports $7 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports - commodities fish and fish products, copper, zinc, gold, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, coffee, sugar, cotton
Exports - partners US 29%, EU 25%, Andean Community 6%, Japan 4%, Mercosur 3% (1999)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath
GDP purchasing power parity - $123 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture:


43% (1999)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,550 (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 3.6% (2000 est.)
Geographic coordinates 10 00 S, 76 00 W
Geography - note shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia
Highways total:
72,900 km

8,700 km

64,200 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%:

highest 10%:
34.3% (1994)
Illicit drugs until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru reduced the area of coca under cultivation by 64% to 34,200 hectares between 1996 and the end of 2000; much of the cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Colombia for processing into cocaine for the international drug market; increasing amounts of finished cocaine, however, are being shipped to Europe or to Brazil and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipped to world markets
Imports 1 million kWh (1999)
Imports $7.4 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports - commodities machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
Imports - partners US 32%, EU 21%, Andean Community 6%, Mercosur 8%, Japan 5% (1999)
Independence 28 July 1821 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 8.5% (2000 est.)
Industries mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication
Infant mortality rate 39.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 3.7% (2000 est.)
International organization participation ABEDA, APEC, CAN, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNTAET, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 10 (2000)
Irrigated land 12,800 sq km (1993 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)
Labor force 7.6 million (1996 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture, mining and quarrying, manufacturing, construction, transport, services
Land boundaries total:
5,536 km

border countries:
Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 1,496 km (est.), Ecuador 1,420 km
Land use arable land:

permanent crops:

permanent pastures:

forests and woodland:

10% (1993 est.)
Languages Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara
Legal system based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Democratic Constituent Congress or Congresso Constituyente Democratico (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

last held 9 April 2000 (next to be held 8 April 2001)

many congressmen defected to and then from former President FUJIMORI's coalition in 2000

election results:
percent of vote by party - Peru 2000 42.16%, Peru Possible 23.34%, FIM 7.56%, Somos Peru 7.2%, APRA 5.5%, others 14.24%; seats by party - Peru 2000 52, Peru Possible 29, FIM 9, others 30
Life expectancy at birth total population:
70.3 years

67.9 years

72.81 years (2001 est.)
Literacy definition:
age 15 and over can read and write

total population:


83% (1995 est.)
Location Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Map references South America
Maritime claims continental shelf:
200 NM

territorial sea:
200 NM
Merchant marine total:
6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 40,623 GRT/61,769 DWT

ships by type:
cargo 5, petroleum tanker 1 (2000 est.)
Military branches Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru; includes Naval Air, Marines, and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru), National Police (Policia Nacional)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $1 billion (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.9% (FY00)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49:
7,205,675 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49:
4,847,250 (2001 est.)
Military manpower - military age 20 years of age
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males:
276,458 (2001 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
Nationality noun:

Natural hazards earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
Natural resources copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower
Net migration rate -1.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Pipelines crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km
Political parties and leaders American Popular Revolutionary Alliance or APRA [Alan GARCIA]; Andean Rebirth [Ciro GALVEZ Herreria]; Avancemos [leader NA]; Democratic Cause [Jorge SANTISTEVAN]; Independent Moralizing Front or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; National Solidarity or SN [Luis CASTANEDA Lossio]; National Unity [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru 2000 [leader NA]; Peru Posible or PP [Alejandro TOLEDO Maniquez]; Popular Action or AP [leader NA]; Popular Agrarian Front of Peru or Frepap [leader NA]; Popular Solution [Carlos BOLONA Behr]; Project Country [Mario Antonio ARRUNATEGUI]; Somos Peru or SP [Alberto ANDRADE]; Union for Peru or UPP [leader NA]; Vamos Vecinos or VV [Absalon VASQUEZ]
Political pressure groups and leaders leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]
Population 27,483,864 (July 2001 est.)
Population below poverty line 49% (1994 est.)
Population growth rate 1.7% (2001 est.)
Ports and harbors Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Matarani, Paita, Puerto Maldonado, Salaverry, San Martin, Talara, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas

Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are all on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries
Radio broadcast stations AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)
Radios 6.65 million (1997)
Railways total:
1,988 km

standard gauge:
1,608 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge:
380 km 0.914-m gauge
Religions Roman Catholic 90%
Sex ratio at birth:
1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years:
1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years:
1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over:
0.85 male(s)/female

total population:
1.01 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment:
adequate for most requirements

nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations

satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Pan American submarine cable
Telephones - main lines in use 1.509 million (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular 504,995 (1998)
Television broadcast stations 13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)
Terrain western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Total fertility rate 2.96 children born/woman (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate 7.7%; extensive underemployment (1997)
Waterways 8,808 km

8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca
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