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Peru (2004)

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Peru 2004 roku

 Peru
Podzial administracyjny 24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali


note: some reports indicate that the 24 departments and 1 constitutional province are now being referred to as regions; Peru is implementing a decentralization program whereby these 25 administrative divisions will begin to exercise greater governmental authority over their territories; w listopad 2002, voters chose their new regional presidents and other regional leaders; the authority that the regional government will exercise has not yet been clearly defined, but it will be devolved to the regions over the course of several years
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 32.1% (male 4,496,146; female 4,340,580)


15-64 years: 62.8% (male 8,709,098; female 8,594,351)


65 years and over: 5.1% (male 660,734; female 743,396) (2004 est.)
Rolinictwo coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, plantains, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products, wool; fish
Lotniska 233 (2003 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 52


over 3,047 m: 5


2,438 to 3,047 m: 20


1,524 to 2,437 m: 16


914 to 1,523 m: 9


under 914 m: 2 (2004 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 182


1,524 to 2,437 m: 21


914 to 1,523 m: 62


under 914 m: 99 (2004 est.)
Terytorium total: 1,285,220 sq km


land: 1.28 million sq km


water: 5,220 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Alaska
Tlo historyczne Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadors w 1533. Peruvian independence was declared w 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated w 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership w 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election w 1990 ushered w a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround w the economy and significant progress w curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump w the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction z his regime. FUJIMORI won reelection to a third term w the spring of 2000, but international pressure and corruption scandals led to his ouster by Congress w listopad of that year. A caretaker government oversaw new elections w the spring of 2001, which ushered w Alejandro TOLEDO as the new head of government; his presidency has been hampered by allegations of corruption.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 21.27 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budzet revenues: $15.86 billion


expenditures: $17.05 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.6 billion (2003 est.)
Stolica Lima
Klimat varies from tropical w east to dry desert w west; temperate to frigid w Andes
Linia brzegowa 2,414 km
Konstytucja 31 grudzien 1993
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Peru


conventional short form: Peru


local long form: Republica del Peru


local short form: Peru
Waluta nuevo sol (PEN)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.29 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $29.95 billion (2003 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador J. Curtis STRUBLE


embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33


mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000


telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000


FAX: [51] (1) 434-3037
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Eduardo FERRERO Costa


chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036


telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869


FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124


consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, Washington (DC)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Boliwia has reanimated its claim to restore the Atacama corridor ceded to Chile and adjoining Peru w 1884 to secure sovereign maritime assess dla Boliwian natural gas
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $895.1 million (1995)
Ekonomia Peru's economy reflects its varied geography - an arid coastal region, the Andes further inland, and tropical lands bordering Kolumbia and Brazylia. Abundant mineral resources are found w the mountainous areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. However, overdependence on minerals and metals subjects the economy to fluctuations w world prices, and a lack of infrastructure deters trade and investment. After several years of inconsistent economic performance, the Peruvian economy was one of the fastest growing w Latin America w 2002 and 2003, growing by 5% and 4%, respectively, z the exchange rate stable and an annual inflation lower than 2%. Foreign direct investment also was strong, thanks to the ongoing Camisea natural gas pipeline project (scheduled to begin operations w 2004) and investments w gold mining. Risk premiums on Peruvian bonds on secondary markets reached historically low levels w late 2003, reflecting investor optimism and the government's fiscal restraint. Despite the strong macroeconomic performance, political intrigue and allegations of corruption continued to swirl w 2003, z the TOLEDO administration growing increasingly unpopular, and local and foreign concern rising that the political turmoil could place the country's hard-won fiscal and financial stability at risk. Moreover, as of late 2003, unemployment had yet to respond to the strong growth w economic activity, owing w part to rigid labor market regulations that act as an impediment to hiring.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 19.15 billion kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2001)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 20.59 billion kWh (2001)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Spokojny 0 m


highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution w Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japoniaese, Chinese, and other 3%
Kurs waluty nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.4785 (2003), 3.5165 (2002), 3.5068 (2001), 3.49 (2000), 3.3833 (1999)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 lipiec 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided dla by the constitution, First Vice President (vacant) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 lipiec 2001)


head of government: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 lipiec 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided dla by the constitution, First Vice President (vacant) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 lipiec 2001)


note: Prime Minister Carlos FERRERO Costa (since 15 grudzien 2003) does not exercise executive power; this power is w the hands of the president


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; special presidential and congressional elections held 8 kwiecien 2001, z runoff election held 3 czerwiec 2001; next to be held 9 kwiecien 2006


election results: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique elected president w runoff election; percent of vote - Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique 53.1%, Alan GARCIA 46.9%
Eksport 0 kWh (2001)
Eksport $8.954 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Eksport NA (2001)
Eksport - towary fish and fish products, gold, copper, zinc, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, coffee, sugar, cotton
Eksport - partnerzy US 27.1%, UK 12.4%, Chiny 7.7%, Szwajcaria 7.6%, Chile 4.7%, Japonia 4.4% (2003)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red z the coat of arms centered w the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $146 billion (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 8%


industry: 27%


services: 65% (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $5,100 (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 4% (2003 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 10 00 S, 76 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, z Boliwia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2003 est.)
Autostrady total: 72,900 km


paved: 9,331 km


unpaved: 63,569 km (1999 est.)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 1.6%


highest 10%: 35.4% (1996)
Narkotyki until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer; emerging opium producer; cultivation of coca w Peru fell 15 percent to 31,150 hectares between 2002 and the end of 2003; much of the cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Kolumbia dla processing into cocaine, while finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazylia and Boliwia dla use w the Southern Cone or transshipped to Europe and Africa
Import 0 kWh (2001)
Import $8.244 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Import NA (2001)
Import - towary machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
Import - partnerzy US 28.6%, Hiszpania 10%, Chile 7.5%, Brazylia 5.1%, Kolumbia 4.5% (2003)
Niepodleglosc 28 lipiec 1821 (from Hiszpania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 2% (2003 est.)
Przemysl mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 32.95 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 35.57 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 30.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflacja 2.3% (2003 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji APEC, CAN, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS, ONUB, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 11,950 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)
Sila robocza 8.63 million (2003 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 5.9%, mining and quarrying 0.4%, manufacturing 12.6%, construction 5.3%, commerce 26.3%, household work 4.9%, other services 44.6% (2004)
Granica total: 5,536 km


border countries: Boliwia 900 km, Brazylia 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Kolumbia 1,496 km (est.), Ekwador 1,420 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 2.89%


permanent crops: 0.4%


other: 96.71% (2001)
Jezyki Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages
System prawny based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held 8 kwiecien 2001 (next to be held 9 kwiecien 2006)


election results: percent of vote by party - Peru Posible 26.3%, APRA 19.7%, Unidad Nacional 13.8%, FIM 11.0%, others 29.2%; seats by party - Peru Posible 47, APRA 28, Unidad Nacional 17, FIM 11, others 17
Zywotnosc total population: 69.22 years


male: 67.48 years


female: 71.03 years (2004 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 90.9%


male: 95.2%


female: 86.8% (2003 est.)
Lokalizacja Western South America, bordering the South Ocean Spokojny, between Chile and Ekwador
Lokalizacja na mapie South America
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm
Flota handlowa total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 13,666 GRT/17,611 DWT


by type: cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1


foreign-owned: Stany Zjednoczone 1


registered w other countries: 19 (2004 est.)
Wojsko Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru; includes Naval Air, Naval Infantry, and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru; FAP)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $829.4 million (2003)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.3% (2003)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 7,374,187 (2004 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 4,938,512 (2004 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 277,931 (2004 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 28 lipiec (1821)
Narodowosc noun: Peruvian(s)


adjective: Peruvian
Naturalne zagrozenia earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
Surowce naturalne copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Wspolczynnik migracji -1.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Rurociagi gas 388 km; oil 1,557 km; refined products 13 km (2004)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Peruvian Aprista Party or PAP (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA) [Alan GARCIA]; Independent Moralizing Front or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Posible or PP [David WAISMAN]; Popular Action or AP [Javier DIAZ Orihuela]; Solucion Popular [Carlos BOLANA]; Somos Peru or SP [Alberto ANDRADE]; Union dla Peru or UPP [Roger GUERRA Garcia]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]
Ludnosc 27,544,305 (lipiec 2004 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 54% (2003 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.39% (2004 est.)
Porty i stocznie Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Matarani, Paita, Puerto Maldonado, Salaverry, San Martin, Talara, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas


note: Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are all on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries
Stacje radiowe AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)
Linie kolejowe total: 3,462 km


standard gauge: 2,962 km 1.435-m gauge


narrow gauge: 500 km 0.914-m gauge (2003)
Religie Roman Catholic 90%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female


total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70; note - members of the military may not vote
System telefoniczny general assessment: adequate dla most requirements


domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system z 12 earth stations


international: country code - 51; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); Pan American submarine cable
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 1,839,200 (2003)
Telefony komorkowe 2,908,800 (2003)
Stacje telewizyjne 13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes w center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.61 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 9.7%; widespread underemployment (2003 est.)
Drogi wodne 8,808 km


note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca (2004)
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