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Peru (2002)

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Peru 2002 roku

 Peru
Podzial administracyjny 24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali


note: the 1979 constitution mandated the creation of regions (regiones, singular - region) to function eventually as autonomous economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted from 23 of the 24 departments - Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge z the department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the central government and organizational and political difficulties, the regions have yet to assume major responsibilities; the 1993 constitution retains the regions but limits their authority; the 1993 constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal governments
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 34% (male 4,820,892; female 4,671,205)


15-64 years: 61.1% (male 8,598,328; female 8,492,830)


65 years and over: 4.9% (male 627,601; female 738,783) (2002 est.)
Rolinictwo coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, plantains, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products, wool; fish
Lotniska 239 (2001)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 49


over 3,047 m: 5


2,438 to 3,047 m: 20


1,524 to 2,437 m: 13


914 to 1,523 m: 9


under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 184


1,524 to 2,437 m: 23


914 to 1,523 m: 61


under 914 m: 100 (2002)
Terytorium total: 1,285,220 sq km


land: 1.28 million sq km


water: 5,220 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Alaska
Tlo historyczne Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadores w 1533. Peruvian independence was declared w 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated w 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership w 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election w 1990 ushered w a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround w the economy and significant progress w curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump w the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction z his regime. FUJIMORI won reelection to a third term w the spring of 2000, but international pressure and corruption scandals led to his ouster by Congress w listopad of that year. A caretaker government oversaw new elections w the spring of 2001, which ushered w Alejandro TOLEDO as the new head of government.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 23.36 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budzet revenues: $10.4 billion


expenditures: $10.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.) (2002 est.)
Stolica Lima
Klimat varies from tropical w east to dry desert w west; temperate to frigid w Andes
Linia brzegowa 2,414 km
Konstytucja 31 grudzien 1993
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Peru


conventional short form: Peru


local long form: Republica del Peru


local short form: Peru
Waluta nuevo sol (PEN)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 5.74 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $33.1 billion (2001 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador John R. DAWSON


embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33


mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000


telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000


FAX: [51] (1) 434-3037
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Roberto DANINO


chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036


telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869


FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124


consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, Washington (DC)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje dispute z Chile over the economic zone delimited by the maritime boundary; Kolumbian drug activities penetrate Peruvian border area
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $895.1 million (1995) (1995)
Ekonomia Thanks to strong foreign investment and the cooperation between the government and the IMF and Swiat Bank, growth was strong w 1994-97 and inflation was brought under control. In 1998, El Nino's impact on agriculture, the financial crisis w Asia, and instability w Brazyliaian markets undercut growth. And 1999 was another lean year dla Peru, z the aftermath of El Nino and the Asian financial crisis working its way through the economy. Political instability resulting from the presidential election and FUJIMORI's subsequent departure from office limited growth w 2000. The downturn w the global economy further depressed growth w 2001. President TOLEDO, who assumed the presidency w lipiec 2001, is working to reinvigorate the economy and reduce unemployment. Economic growth w 2002 is projected to be 3 to 3.5%.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 18.301 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 19.679 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii fossil fuel: 18%


hydro: 81%


nuclear: 0%


other: 1% (2000)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Spokojny 0 m


highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution w Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol
Grupy etniczne Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japoniaese, Chinese, and other 3%
Kurs waluty nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.4400 (listopad 2001), 3.509 (2001), 3.4900 (2000), 3.3833 (1999), 2.9300 (1998), 2.6642 (1997)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 lipiec 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided dla by the constitution, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Canseco (since 28 lipiec 2001) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 lipiec 2001)


head of government: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 lipiec 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided dla by the constitution, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Canseco (since 28 lipiec 2001) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 lipiec 2001)


note: Prime Minister Luis SOLARI DE LA FUENTE (since 12 lipiec 2002) does not exercise executive power; this power is w the hands of the president; DANINO resigned 11 lipiec 2002 and was replaced by Luis SOLARI


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; special presidential and congressional elections held 8 kwiecien 2001, z runoff election held 3 czerwiec 2001; next to be held 9 kwiecien 2006


election results: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique elected president w runoff election; percent of vote - Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique 53.1%, Alan GARCIA 46.9%
Eksport 0 kWh (2000)
Eksport $7.3 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Eksport - towary fish and fish products, gold, copper, zinc, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, coffee, sugar, cotton
Eksport - partnerzy US 28%, UK 8%, Szwajcaria 8%, Chiny 6%, Japonia, Chile, Brazylia (2000)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red z the coat of arms centered w the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath
Produkt krajowy brutto purchasing power parity - $132 billion (2001 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 10%


industry: 35%


services: 55% (2001 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $4,800 (2001 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu -0.3% (2001 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 10 00 S, 76 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, z Boliwia; remote Lake McIntyre is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
Autostrady total: 72,900 km


paved: 8,700 km


unpaved: 64,200 km (1999 est.)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2%


highest 10%: 35% (1996) (1996)
Narkotyki until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer; emerging opium producer; cultivation of coca w Peru increased by 8% to 36,600 hectares between 2001 and the end of 2002; much of the cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Kolumbia dla processing into cocaine, while finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazylia and Boliwia dla use w the Southern Cone or transshipped to Europe and Africa
Import 0 kWh (2000)
Import $7.4 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Import - towary machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
Import - partnerzy US 27%, Chile 8%, Hiszpania 6%, Wenezuela 4%, Kolumbia, Brazylia, Japonia (2000)
Niepodleglosc 28 lipiec 1821 (from Hiszpania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 1.5% (2001 est.)
Przemysl mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow 38.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflacja 1.5% (2001 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji ABEDA, APEC, CAN, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Dostawcy internetu 10 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 11,950 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)
Sila robocza 7.5 million (2000 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture, mining and quarrying, manufacturing, construction, transport, services
Granica total: 5,536 km


border countries: Boliwia 900 km, Brazylia 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Kolumbia 1,496 km (est.), Ekwador 1,420 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 2.85%


permanent crops: 0.38%


other: 96.77% (1998 est.)
Jezyki Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara
System prawny based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congresso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held 8 kwiecien 2001 (next to be held 9 kwiecien 2006)


election results: percent of vote by party - Peru Posible 26.3%, APRA 19.7%, Unidad Nacional 13.8%, FIM 11.0%, others 29.2%; seats by party - Peru Posible 47, APRA 28, Unidad Nacional 17, FIM 11, others 17
Zywotnosc total population: 70.59 years


male: 68.18 years


female: 73.12 years (2002 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 88.3%


male: 94.5%


female: 83% (1995 est.)
Lokalizacja Western South America, bordering the South Ocean Spokojny, between Chile and Ekwador
Lokalizacja na mapie South America
Morskie obszary continental shelf: 200 NM


territorial sea: 200 NM
Flota handlowa total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 29,470 GRT/45,451 DWT


ships by type: cargo 4, petroleum tanker 1


note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Stany Zjednoczone 1 (2002 est.)
Wojsko Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru; includes Naval Air, Marines, and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru; FAP), National Police (includes General Police, Security Police, and Technical Police)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $1 billion (FY01)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.8% (FY01)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) males age 15-49: 7,356,395 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) males age 15-49: 4,944,952 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) 17 years of age (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) males: 276,458 (2002 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 28 lipiec (1821)
Narodowosc noun: Peruvian(s)


adjective: Peruvian
Naturalne zagrozenia earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
Surowce naturalne copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Wspolczynnik migracji -1.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Rurociagi crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km
Partie polityczne i przywodcy American Popular Revolutionary Alliance or APRA (now Peruvian Aprista Party or PAP as of kwiecien 2001) [Alan GARCIA]; Independent Moralizing Front or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Posible or PP [Luis SOLARI]; Popular Action or AP [Javier DIAZ Orihuela]; Solucion Popular [Carlos BOLANA]; Somos Peru or SP [Alberto ANDRADE]; Union dla Peru or UPP [Roger GUERRA Garcia]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]
Ludnosc 27,949,639 (lipiec 2002 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 50% (2000 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.66% (2002 est.)
Porty i stocznie Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Matarani, Paita, Puerto Maldonado, Salaverry, San Martin, Talara, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas


note: Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are all on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries
Stacje radiowe AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)
Radia 6.65 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total: 2,102 km


standard gauge: 1,695 km 1.435-m gauge


narrow gauge: 407 km 0.914-m gauge (2001)
Religie Roman Catholic 90%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female


total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: adequate dla most requirements


domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system z 12 earth stations


international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); Pan American submarine cable
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 1.8 million (2000)
Telefony komorkowe 504,995 (1998)
Stacje telewizyjne 13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes w center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.89 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 9%; widespread underemployment (2001 est.)
Drogi wodne 8,808 km


note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca
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