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Peru (2005)

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Peru 2005 roku

 Peru
Podzial administracyjny 25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 31.5% (male 4,479,278/female 4,323,356)


15-64 years: 63.3% (male 8,891,785/female 8,776,343)


65 years and over: 5.2% (male 685,179/female 769,687) (2005 est.)
Rolinictwo coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products; fish
Lotniska 234 (2004 est.)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 52


over 3,047 m: 5


2,438 to 3,047 m: 20


1,524 to 2,437 m: 16


914 to 1,523 m: 9


under 914 m: 2 (2004 est.)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 182


1,524 to 2,437 m: 21


914 to 1,523 m: 62


under 914 m: 99 (2004 est.)
Terytorium total: 1,285,220 sq km


land: 1.28 million sq km


water: 5,220 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Alaska
Tlo historyczne Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadors w 1533. Peruvian independence was declared w 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated w 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership w 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election w 1990 ushered w a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround w the economy and significant progress w curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump w the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction z his regime. FUJIMORI won reelection to a third term w the spring of 2000, but international pressure and corruption scandals led to his ouster by Congress w listopad of that year. A caretaker government oversaw new elections w the spring of 2001, which ushered w Alejandro TOLEDO as the new head of government; his presidency has been hampered by allegations of corruption.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 20.87 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Budzet revenues: $13.6 billion


expenditures: $14.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.8 billion, dla general government, excluding private enterprises (2004 est.)
Stolica Lima
Klimat varies from tropical w east to dry desert w west; temperate to frigid w Andes
Linia brzegowa 2,414 km
Konstytucja 31 grudzien 1993
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Peru


conventional short form: Peru


local long form: Republica del Peru


local short form: Peru
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.26 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $29.79 billion (2004 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador J. Curtis STRUBLE


embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33


mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000


telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000


FAX: [51] (1) 434-3037
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Eduardo FERRERO Costa


chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036


telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869


FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124


consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Denver, Hartford, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, Washington, DC
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Peru proposes changing its latitudinal maritime boundary z Chile to an equidistance line z a southwestern axis; organized illegal narcotics operations w Kolumbia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru does not support Boliwia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $491 million (2002)
Ekonomia Peru's economy reflects its varied geography - an arid coastal region, the Andes further inland, and tropical lands bordering Kolumbia and Brazylia. Abundant mineral resources are found w the mountainous areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. However, overdependence on minerals and metals subjects the economy to fluctuations w world prices, and a lack of infrastructure deters trade and investment. After several years of inconsistent economic performance, the Peruvian economy grew by an average 4 percent per year during the period 2002-2004, z a stable exchange rate and low inflation. Risk premiums on Peruvian bonds on secondary markets reached historically low levels w late 2004, reflecting investor optimism regarding the government's prudent fiscal policies and openness to trade and investment. Despite the strong macroeconomic performance, the TOLEDO administration remained unpopular w 2004, and unemployment and poverty have stayed persistently high.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 20.22 billion kWh (2002)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2003)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 22.88 billion kWh (2004 est.)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Spokojny 0 m


highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution w Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japoniaese, Chinese, and other 3%
Kurs waluty nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.4132 (2004), 3.4785 (2003), 3.5165 (2002), 3.5068 (2001), 3.49 (2000)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 lipiec 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally, the constitution provides dla two vice presidents, First Vice President (vacant) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN Rjavinsthi (since 28 lipiec 2001)


head of government: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 lipiec 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally, the constitution provides dla two vice presidents, First Vice President (vacant) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN Rjavinsthi (since 28 lipiec 2001)


note: Prime Minister Pedro Pablo KUCZYNSKI (since 25 sierpien 2005) does not exercise executive power; this power is w the hands of the president


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; special presidential and congressional elections held 8 kwiecien 2001, z runoff election held 3 czerwiec 2001; next to be held 9 kwiecien 2006


election results: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique elected president w runoff election; percent of vote - Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique 53.1%, Alan GARCIA 46.9%
Eksport 0 kWh (2003)
Eksport $12.3 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2004 est.)
Eksport 49,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Eksport - towary copper, gold, zinc, crude petroleum and petroleum products, coffee
Eksport - partnerzy US 29.5%, Chiny 9.9%, UK 9%, Chile 5.1%, Japonia 4.4% (2004)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red z the coat of arms centered w the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 8%


industry: 27%


services: 65% (2003 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita purchasing power parity - $5,600 (2004 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 4.5% (2004 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 10 00 S, 76 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, z Boliwia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2004 est.)
Autostrady total: 78,230 km


paved: 10,452 km


unpaved: 67,778 km (2001)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 0.8%


highest 10%: 37.2% (2000)
Narkotyki until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer; emerging opium producer; cultivation of coca w Peru fell 15 percent to 31,150 hectares between 2002 and the end of 2003; much of the cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Kolumbia dla processing into cocaine, while finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazylia and Boliwia dla use w the Southern Cone or transshipped to Europe and Africa
Import 0 kWh (2003)
Import $9.6 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Import 0 cu m (2004 est.)
Import NA
Import - towary petroleum and petroleum products, plastics, machinery, vehicles, iron and steel, wheat, paper
Import - partnerzy US 30.3%, Hiszpania 11.5%, Chile 7.2%, Brazylia 5.4%, Kolumbia 5.2% (2004)
Niepodleglosc 28 lipiec 1821 (from Hiszpania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 5.2% (2004 est.)
Przemysl mining and refining of minerals and metals, petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas, fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing, steel, metal fabrication
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 31.94 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 34.53 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 29.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Inflacja 3.8% (2004 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji APEC, CAN, CSN, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS, ONUB, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 11,950 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)
Sila robocza 11 million (2004 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture 9%, industry 18%, services 73% (2001)
Granica total: 5,536 km


border countries: Boliwia 900 km, Brazylia 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Kolumbia 1,496 km (est.), Ekwador 1,420 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 2.89%


permanent crops: 0.4%


other: 96.71% (2001)
Jezyki Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages
System prawny based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held 8 kwiecien 2001 (next to be held 9 kwiecien 2006)


election results: percent of vote by party - PP 26.3%, APRA 19.7%, UN 13.8%, FIM 11.0%, others 29.2%; seats by party - PP 47, APRA 28, UN 17, FIM 11, others 17
Zywotnosc total population: 69.53 years


male: 67.77 years


female: 71.37 years (2005 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 87.7%


male: 93.5%


female: 82.1% (2004 est.)
Lokalizacja Western South America, bordering the South Ocean Spokojny, between Chile and Ekwador
Lokalizacja na mapie South America
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm
Flota handlowa total: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 13,666 GRT/17,611 DWT


by type: cargo 3, petroleum tanker 1


foreign-owned: 1 (Stany Zjednoczone 1)


registered w other countries: 14 (2005)
Wojsko Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru; includes Naval Air, Naval Infantry, and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru; FAP)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) $829.3 million (2003)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.4% (2004)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 28 lipiec (1821)
Narodowosc noun: Peruvian(s)


adjective: Peruvian
Naturalne zagrozenia earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
Surowce naturalne copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Wspolczynnik migracji -1.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Rurociagi gas 388 km; oil 1,557 km; refined products 13 km (2004)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Independent Moralizing Front or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Posible or PP [David WAISMAN]; Peruvian Aprista Party or PAP (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA) [Alan GARCIA]; Popular Action or AP [Javier DIAZ Orihuela]; Solucion Popular [Carlos BOLANA]; Somos Peru or SP [Alberto ANDRADE]; Union dla Peru or UPP [Roger GUERRA Garcia]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]
Ludnosc 27,925,628 (lipiec 2005 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 54% (2003 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.36% (2005 est.)
Porty i stocznie Callao, Iquitos, Matarani, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas


note: Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries
Stacje radiowe AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)
Linie kolejowe total: 3,462 km


standard gauge: 2,962 km 1.435-m gauge


narrow gauge: 500 km 0.914-m gauge (2004)
Religie Roman Catholic 81%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.4%, other Christian 0.7%, other 0.6%, unspecified or none 16.3% (2003 est.)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female


total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70; note - members of the military and national police may not vote
System telefoniczny general assessment: adequate dla most requirements


domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system z 12 earth stations


international: country code - 51; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); Pan American submarine cable
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 1,839,200 (2003)
Telefony komorkowe 2,908,800 (2003)
Stacje telewizyjne 13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes w center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.56 children born/woman (2005 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 9.6% w metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment (2004 est.)
Drogi wodne 8,808 km


note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca (2004)
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