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Peru (2003)

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Peru 2003 year

Administrative divisions 24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali

note: some reports indicate that the 24 departments and 1 constitutional province are now being referred to as regions; Peru is implementing a decentralization program whereby these 25 administrative divisions will begin to exercise greater governmental authority over their territories; in November 2002, voters chose their new regional presidents and other regional leaders; the authority that the regional government will exercise has not yet been clearly defined, but it will be devolved to the regions over the course of several years
Age structure 0-14 years: 33.5% (male 4,828,531; female 4,678,008)

15-64 years: 61.5% (male 8,794,799; female 8,689,072)

65 years and over: 5% (male 652,375; female 767,112) (2003 est.)
Agriculture - products coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, plantains, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products, wool; fish
Airports 233 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways total: 49

over 3,047 m: 5

2,438 to 3,047 m: 20

1,524 to 2,437 m: 13

914 to 1,523 m: 9

under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 184

1,524 to 2,437 m: 23

914 to 1,523 m: 61

under 914 m: 100 (2002)
Area total: 1,285,220 sq km

land: 1.28 million sq km

water: 5,220 sq km
Area - comparative slightly smaller than Alaska
Background Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadores in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime. FUJIMORI won reelection to a third term in the spring of 2000, but international pressure and corruption scandals led to his ouster by Congress in November of that year. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which ushered in Alejandro TOLEDO as the new head of government.
Birth rate 22.81 births/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Budget revenues: $10.4 billion

expenditures: $10.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
Capital Lima
Climate varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
Coastline 2,414 km
Constitution 31 December 1993
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Peru

conventional short form: Peru

local long form: Republica del Peru

local short form: Peru
Currency nuevo sol (PEN)
Death rate 5.69 deaths/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Debt - external $29.2 billion (2002 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador John R. DAWSON

embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33

mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000

telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000

FAX: [51] (1) 434-3037
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)

chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036

telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869

FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124

consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, Washington (DC)
Disputes - international Bolivia continues to press Chile and Peru to restore the Atacama corridor ceded to Chile in 1884
Economic aid - recipient $895.1 million (1995)
Economy - overview Thanks to foreign investment and the cooperation between the government and the IMF and World Bank, growth was strong in 1994-97 and inflation was brought under control. In 1998, El Nino's impact on agriculture, the financial crisis in Asia, and instability in Brazilian markets undercut growth. The following year was again lean year for Peru, with the aftermath of El Nino and the Asian financial crisis working its way through the economy. Political instability resulting from the presidential election and FUJIMORI's subsequent departure from office limited growth in 2000. The downturn in the global economy further curtailed growth in 2001. President TOLEDO, who assumed the presidency in July 2001, has been working to reinvigorate the economy and reduce unemployment. Economic growth in 2002 is estimated at 4.8%, led by construction in the retail and gas sectors.
Electricity - consumption 19.15 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 20.59 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - production by source fossil fuel: 14.5%

hydro: 84.7%

nuclear: 0%

other: 0.8% (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m

highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
Environment - current issues deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Environment - international agreements party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Ethnic groups Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Exchange rates nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.52 (2002), 3.51 (2001), 3.49 (2000), 3.38 (1999), 2.93 (1998)
Executive branch chief of state: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided for by the constitution, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Canseco (since 28 July 2001) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 July 2001)

head of government: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided for by the constitution, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Canseco (since 28 July 2001) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 July 2001)

note: Prime Minister Carlos FERRERO Costa (since 15 December 2003) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president; note - Beatriz MERINO was asked to resign on 12 December 2003 and was replaced by Carlos FERRERO Costa three days later

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; special presidential and congressional elections held 8 April 2001, with runoff election held 3 June 2001; next to be held 9 April 2006

election results: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique 53.1%, Alan GARCIA 46.9%
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $7.6 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities fish and fish products, gold, copper, zinc, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, coffee, sugar, cotton
Exports - partners US 28.1%, China 10.5%, UK 7%, Switzerland 6.1%, Japan 5.6% (2002)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath
GDP purchasing power parity - $138.8 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 10%

industry: 27%

services: 63% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $5,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 5.3% (2002 est.)
Geographic coordinates 10 00 S, 76 00 W
Geography - note shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
Highways total: 72,900 km

paved: 9,331 km

unpaved: 63,569 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 1.6%

highest 10%: 35.4% (1996)
Illicit drugs until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer; emerging opium producer; cultivation of coca in Peru increased by 8% to 36,600 hectares between 2001 and the end of 2002; much of the cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Colombia for processing into cocaine, while finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipped to Europe and Africa
Imports 0 kWh (2001)
Imports $7.3 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports 0 cu m (2001 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
Imports - partners US 26.1%, Chile 7.9%, Spain 5.1%, Colombia 5%, Brazil 4.7%, Venezuela 4.7%, Argentina 4.3% (2002)
Independence 28 July 1821 (from Spain)
Industrial production growth rate 6.5% (2002 est.)
Industries mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication
Infant mortality rate total: 36.97 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 42.04 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 31.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2003 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 0.2% (2002 est.)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) 10 (2000)
Irrigated land 11,950 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)
Labor force 7.5 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture, mining and quarrying, manufacturing, construction, transport, services
Land boundaries total: 5,536 km

border countries: Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 1,496 km (est.), Ecuador 1,420 km
Land use arable land: 2.85%

permanent crops: 0.38%

other: 96.77% (1998 est.)
Languages Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara
Legal system based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held 8 April 2001 (next to be held 9 April 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - Peru Posible 26.3%, APRA 19.7%, Unidad Nacional 13.8%, FIM 11.0%, others 29.2%; seats by party - Peru Posible 47, APRA 28, Unidad Nacional 17, FIM 11, others 17
Life expectancy at birth total population: 70.88 years

male: 68.45 years

female: 73.43 years (2003 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 90.9%

male: 95.2%

female: 86.8% (2003 est.)
Location Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Map references South America
Maritime claims continental shelf: 200 NM

territorial sea: 200 NM
Merchant marine total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 29,470 GRT/45,451 DWT

ships by type: cargo 4, petroleum tanker 1

note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: US 1 (2002 est.)
Military branches Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru; includes Naval Air, Marines, and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru; FAP), National Police (includes General Police, Security Police, and Technical Police)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $1 billion (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 1.8% (FY01)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 7,510,882 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 5,045,619 (2003 est.)
Military manpower - military age 17 years of age (2003 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 281,717 (2003 est.)
National holiday Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
Nationality noun: Peruvian(s)

adjective: Peruvian
Natural hazards earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
Natural resources copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Net migration rate -1.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2003 est.)
Pipelines gas 388 km; oil 1,557 km; refined products 13 km (2003)
Political parties and leaders Peruvian Aprista Party or PAP [Alan GARCIA]; Independent Moralizing Front or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Posible or PP [Luis SOLARI]; Popular Action or AP [Javier DIAZ Orihuela]; Solucion Popular [Carlos BOLANA]; Somos Peru or SP [Alberto ANDRADE]; Union for Peru or UPP [Roger GUERRA Garcia]
Political pressure groups and leaders leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]
Population 28,409,897 (July 2003 est.)
Population below poverty line 50% (2000 est.)
Population growth rate 1.61% (2003 est.)
Ports and harbors Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Matarani, Paita, Puerto Maldonado, Salaverry, San Martin, Talara, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas

note: Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are all on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries
Radio broadcast stations AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)
Railways total: 1,829 km

standard gauge: 1,515 km 1.435-m gauge

narrow gauge: 314 km 0.914-m gauge (2002)
Religions Roman Catholic 90%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female

total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2003 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: adequate for most requirements

domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations

international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Pan American submarine cable
Telephones - main lines in use 1.8 million (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular 504,995 (1998)
Television broadcast stations 13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)
Terrain western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Total fertility rate 2.81 children born/woman (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate 9.4%; widespread underemployment (2002 est.)
Waterways 8,808 km

note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca
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