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Porownanie Peru (2008) - Peru (2002)

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 Peru (2008)Peru (2002)
 PeruPeru
Podzial administracyjny 25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali 24 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali


note: the 1979 constitution mandated the creation of regions (regiones, singular - region) to function eventually as autonomous economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted from 23 of the 24 departments - Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge z the department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the central government and organizational and political difficulties, the regions have yet to assume major responsibilities; the 1993 constitution retains the regions but limits their authority; the 1993 constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal governments
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 30.3% (male 4,427,080/female 4,271,390)


15-64 years: 64.2% (male 9,267,642/female 9,150,816)


65 years and over: 5.4% (male 734,533/female 823,296) (2007 est.)
0-14 years: 34% (male 4,820,892; female 4,671,205)


15-64 years: 61.1% (male 8,598,328; female 8,492,830)


65 years and over: 4.9% (male 627,601; female 738,783) (2002 est.)
Rolinictwo asparagus, coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products; fish, guinea pigs coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, plantains, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products, wool; fish
Lotniska 237 (2007) 239 (2001)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 54


over 3,047 m: 6


2,438 to 3,047 m: 20


1,524 to 2,437 m: 14


914 to 1,523 m: 11


under 914 m: 3 (2007)
total: 49


over 3,047 m: 5


2,438 to 3,047 m: 20


1,524 to 2,437 m: 13


914 to 1,523 m: 9


under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 183


2,438 to 3,047 m: 2


1,524 to 2,437 m: 24


914 to 1,523 m: 40


under 914 m: 117 (2007)
total: 184


1,524 to 2,437 m: 23


914 to 1,523 m: 61


under 914 m: 100 (2002)
Terytorium total: 1,285,220 sq km


land: 1.28 million sq km


water: 5,220 sq km
total: 1,285,220 sq km


land: 1.28 million sq km


water: 5,220 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly smaller than Alaska slightly smaller than Alaska
Tlo historyczne Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadors w 1533. Peruvian independence was declared w 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated w 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership w 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election w 1990 ushered w a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround w the economy and significant progress w curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump w the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction z his regime, which led to his ouster w 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections w the spring of 2001, which ushered w Alejandro TOLEDO as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of Native American ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, returned to the presidency z promises to improve social conditions and maintain fiscal responsibility. Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadores w 1533. Peruvian independence was declared w 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated w 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership w 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election w 1990 ushered w a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround w the economy and significant progress w curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump w the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction z his regime. FUJIMORI won reelection to a third term w the spring of 2000, but international pressure and corruption scandals led to his ouster by Congress w listopad of that year. A caretaker government oversaw new elections w the spring of 2001, which ushered w Alejandro TOLEDO as the new head of government.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 20.09 births/1,000 population (2007 est.) 23.36 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Budzet revenues: $30.35 billion


expenditures: $29.8 billion (2007 est.)
revenues: $10.4 billion


expenditures: $10.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.) (2002 est.)
Stolica name: Lima


geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W


time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Lima
Klimat varies from tropical w east to dry desert w west; temperate to frigid w Andes varies from tropical w east to dry desert w west; temperate to frigid w Andes
Linia brzegowa 2,414 km 2,414 km
Konstytucja 29 grudzien 1993 31 grudzien 1993
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Peru


conventional short form: Peru


local long form: Republica del Peru


local short form: Peru
conventional long form: Republic of Peru


conventional short form: Peru


local long form: Republica del Peru


local short form: Peru
Waluta - nuevo sol (PEN)
Wspolczynnik zgonow 6.21 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.) 5.74 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $27.81 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.) $33.1 billion (2001 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador J. Curtis STRUBLE


embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33


mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000


telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000


FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397
chief of mission: Ambassador John R. DAWSON


embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33


mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000


telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000


FAX: [51] (1) 434-3037
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Felipe ORTIZ de Zevallos


chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036


telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869


FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124


consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Denver, Hartford, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, Washington, DC
chief of mission: Ambassador Roberto DANINO


chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036


telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869


FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124


consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, Washington (DC)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje Chile and Ekwador rejected Peru's listopad 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations w Kolumbia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Boliwia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border dispute z Chile over the economic zone delimited by the maritime boundary; Kolumbian drug activities penetrate Peruvian border area
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $397.8 million (2005) $895.1 million (1995) (1995)
Ekonomia Peru's economy reflects its varied geography - an arid coastal region, the Andes further inland, and tropical lands bordering Kolumbia and Brazylia. Abundant mineral resources are found w the mountainous areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. However, overdependence on minerals and metals subjects the economy to fluctuations w world prices, and a lack of infrastructure deters trade and investment. After several years of inconsistent economic performance, the Peruvian economy grew by more than 4% per year during the period 2002-06, z a stable exchange rate and low inflation. Growth jumped to 7.5% w 2007, driven by higher world prices dla minerals and metals. Risk premiums on Peruvian bonds on secondary markets reached historically low levels w late 2004, reflecting investor optimism regarding the government's prudent fiscal policies and openness to trade and investment. Despite the strong macroeconomic performance, underemployment and poverty have stayed persistently high. Growth prospects depend on exports of minerals, textiles, and agricultural products, and by expectations dla the Camisea natural gas megaproject and dla other promising energy projects. Upon taking office, President GARCIA announced Sierra Exportadora, a program aimed at promoting economic growth w Peru's southern and central highlands. Thanks to strong foreign investment and the cooperation between the government and the IMF and Swiat Bank, growth was strong w 1994-97 and inflation was brought under control. In 1998, El Nino's impact on agriculture, the financial crisis w Asia, and instability w Brazyliaian markets undercut growth. And 1999 was another lean year dla Peru, z the aftermath of El Nino and the Asian financial crisis working its way through the economy. Political instability resulting from the presidential election and FUJIMORI's subsequent departure from office limited growth w 2000. The downturn w the global economy further depressed growth w 2001. President TOLEDO, who assumed the presidency w lipiec 2001, is working to reinvigorate the economy and reduce unemployment. Economic growth w 2002 is projected to be 3 to 3.5%.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 22.59 billion kWh (2005) 18.301 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2005) 0 kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - import 0 kWh (2005) 0 kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 24.97 billion kWh (2005 est.) 19.679 billion kWh (2000)
Elektrycznosc - zrodla energii - fossil fuel: 18%


hydro: 81%


nuclear: 0%


other: 1% (2000)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Ocean Spokojny 0 m


highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
lowest point: Ocean Spokojny 0 m


highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution w Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution w Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling


signed, but not ratified: Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol
Grupy etniczne Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japoniaese, Chinese, and other 3% Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japoniaese, Chinese, and other 3%
Kurs waluty nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.1731 (2007), 3.2742 (2006), 3.2958 (2005), 3.4132 (2004), 3.4785 (2003) nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.4400 (listopad 2001), 3.509 (2001), 3.4900 (2000), 3.3833 (1999), 2.9300 (1998), 2.6642 (1997)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 lipiec 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas; Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 lipiec 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government


head of government: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 lipiec 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas; Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 lipiec 2006)


note: Prime Minister Jorge DEL CASTILLO Galvez (since 28 sierpien 2006) does not exercise executive power; this power is w the hands of the president


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a nonconsecutive reelection); presidential and congressional elections held 9 kwiecien 2006 z runoff election held 4 czerwiec 2006; next to be held w kwiecien 2011


election results: Alan GARCIA elected president w runoff election; percent of vote - Alan GARCIA 52.5%, Ollanta HUMALA Tasso 47.5%
chief of state: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 lipiec 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided dla by the constitution, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Canseco (since 28 lipiec 2001) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 lipiec 2001)


head of government: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique (since 28 lipiec 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; additionally two vice presidents are provided dla by the constitution, First Vice President Raul DIEZ Canseco (since 28 lipiec 2001) and Second Vice President David WAISMAN (since 28 lipiec 2001)


note: Prime Minister Luis SOLARI DE LA FUENTE (since 12 lipiec 2002) does not exercise executive power; this power is w the hands of the president; DANINO resigned 11 lipiec 2002 and was replaced by Luis SOLARI


cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term; special presidential and congressional elections held 8 kwiecien 2001, z runoff election held 3 czerwiec 2001; next to be held 9 kwiecien 2006


election results: President Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique elected president w runoff election; percent of vote - Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique 53.1%, Alan GARCIA 46.9%
Eksport 53,040 bbl/day (2004 est.) $7.3 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Eksport - towary copper, gold, zinc, crude petroleum and petroleum products, coffee, potatoes, asparagus, textiles, guinea pigs fish and fish products, gold, copper, zinc, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, coffee, sugar, cotton
Eksport - partnerzy US 24.1%, Chiny 9.6%, Szwajcaria 7.1%, Kanada 6.8%, Chile 6%, Japonia 5.2% (2006) US 28%, UK 8%, Szwajcaria 8%, Chiny 6%, Japonia, Chile, Brazylia (2000)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red z the coat of arms centered w the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red z the coat of arms centered w the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath
Produkt krajowy brutto - purchasing power parity - $132 billion (2001 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 8.4%


industry: 25.6%


services: 66% (2007 est.)
agriculture: 10%


industry: 35%


services: 55% (2001 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - per capita - purchasing power parity - $4,800 (2001 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 7.5% (2007 est.) -0.3% (2001 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 10 00 S, 76 00 W 10 00 S, 76 00 W
Polozenie geograficzne shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, z Boliwia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, z Boliwia; remote Lake McIntyre is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
Ladowiska helikopterow 1 (2007) -
Autostrady - total: 72,900 km


paved: 8,700 km


unpaved: 64,200 km (1999 est.)
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 1.3%


highest 10%: 40.9% (2003)
lowest 10%: 2%


highest 10%: 35% (1996) (1996)
Narkotyki until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru is now the world's second largest producer of coca leaf, though it lags far behind Kolumbia; cultivation of coca w Peru rose 25% to 34,000 hectares w 2005; much of the cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Kolumbia dla processing into cocaine, while finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazylia and Boliwia dla use w the Southern Cone or transshipped to Europe and Africa until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer; emerging opium producer; cultivation of coca w Peru increased by 8% to 36,600 hectares between 2001 and the end of 2002; much of the cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Kolumbia dla processing into cocaine, while finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazylia and Boliwia dla use w the Southern Cone or transshipped to Europe and Africa
Import 121,500 bbl/day (2004) $7.4 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Import - towary petroleum and petroleum products, plastics, machinery, vehicles, iron and steel, wheat, paper machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
Import - partnerzy US 16.5%, Chiny 10.3%, Brazylia 10.3%, Ekwador 7.2%, Kolumbia 6.1%, Chile 5.8%, Argentyna 4.8%, Meksyk 4% (2006) US 27%, Chile 8%, Hiszpania 6%, Wenezuela 4%, Kolumbia, Brazylia, Japonia (2000)
Niepodleglosc 28 lipiec 1821 (from Hiszpania) 28 lipiec 1821 (from Hiszpania)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 5% (2007 est.) 1.5% (2001 est.)
Przemysl mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas; fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 29.96 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 32.47 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 27.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
38.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Inflacja 3.5% (2007 est.) 1.5% (2001 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji APEC, CAN, CSN, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO ABEDA, APEC, CAN, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
Dostawcy internetu - 10 (2000)
Nawadniane tereny 12,000 sq km (2003) 11,950 sq km (1998 est.)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary) Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)
Sila robocza 9.419 million (2007 est.) 7.5 million (2000 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 9%


industry: 18%


services: 73% (2001)
agriculture, mining and quarrying, manufacturing, construction, transport, services
Granica total: 7,461 km


border countries: Boliwia 1,075 km, Brazylia 2,995 km, Chile 171 km, Kolumbia 1,800 km, Ekwador 1,420 km
total: 5,536 km


border countries: Boliwia 900 km, Brazylia 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Kolumbia 1,496 km (est.), Ekwador 1,420 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 2.88%


permanent crops: 0.47%


other: 96.65% (2005)
arable land: 2.85%


permanent crops: 0.38%


other: 96.77% (1998 est.)
Jezyki Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara
System prawny based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction z reservations based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held 9 kwiecien 2006 (next to be held w kwiecien 2011)


election results: percent of vote by party - UPP 21.2%, PAP 20.6%, UN 15.3%, AF 13.1%, FC 7.1%, PP 4.1%, RN 4.0%, other 14.6%; seats by party - UPP 45, PAP 36, UN 17, AF 13, FC 5, PP 2, RN 2
unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congresso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)


elections: last held 8 kwiecien 2001 (next to be held 9 kwiecien 2006)


election results: percent of vote by party - Peru Posible 26.3%, APRA 19.7%, Unidad Nacional 13.8%, FIM 11.0%, others 29.2%; seats by party - Peru Posible 47, APRA 28, Unidad Nacional 17, FIM 11, others 17
Zywotnosc total population: 70.14 years


male: 68.33 years


female: 72.04 years (2007 est.)
total population: 70.59 years


male: 68.18 years


female: 73.12 years (2002 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 87.7%


male: 93.5%


female: 82.1% (2004 est.)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 88.3%


male: 94.5%


female: 83% (1995 est.)
Lokalizacja Western South America, bordering the South Ocean Spokojny, between Chile and Ekwador Western South America, bordering the South Ocean Spokojny, between Chile and Ekwador
Lokalizacja na mapie South America South America
Morskie obszary territorial sea: 200 nm


continental shelf: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 NM


territorial sea: 200 NM
Flota handlowa total: 6 ships (1000 GRT or over) 76,220 GRT/119,615 DWT


by type: cargo 3, petroleum tanker 3


foreign-owned: 1 (US 1)


registered w other countries: 16 (Belize 1, Panama 15) (2007)
total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 29,470 GRT/45,451 DWT


ships by type: cargo 4, petroleum tanker 1


note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Stany Zjednoczone 1 (2002 est.)
Wojsko Peruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP (includes naval air, naval infantry, and coast guard)), Peruvian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP) (2007) Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru; includes Naval Air, Marines, and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru; FAP), National Police (includes General Police, Security Police, and Technical Police)
Wojska - wydatki (w dolarach) - $1 billion (FY01)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 1.5% (2006) 1.8% (FY01)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (w wieku poborowym) - males age 15-49: 7,356,395 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (zdolni do sluzby wojskowej) - males age 15-49: 4,944,952 (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (wiek zolniezy) - 17 years of age (2002 est.)
Wojsko - zasoby ludzkie (osoby osiagajace wiek poborowy w ciagu roku) - males: 276,458 (2002 est.)
Swieto narodowe Niepodleglosc Day, 28 lipiec (1821) Niepodleglosc Day, 28 lipiec (1821)
Narodowosc noun: Peruvian(s)


adjective: Peruvian
noun: Peruvian(s)


adjective: Peruvian
Naturalne zagrozenia earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
Surowce naturalne copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.) -1.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Rurociagi gas 1,181 km; gas/liquid petroleum gas 61 km; liquid natural gas 106 km; liquid petroleum gas 517 km; oil 1,749 km; refined products 13 km (2007) crude oil 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids 64 km
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Alliance For Progress (Alianza Para El Progreso) [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]; Alliance For The Future (Alianza Por El Futuro) or AF (a coalition of pro-FUJIMORI parties including Cambio 90, Nueva majoria, and Si Cumple); Centrist Front (Frente Del Centro) or FC (a coalition of Accion Popular, Somos Peru, and Coordinadora Nacional de Independientes); Independent Moralizing Front (Frente Independiente Moralizador) or FIM; National Renovation Party (Partido Renovacion Nacional) [Rafael REY]; National Restoration (Restauracion Nacional) or RN [Humberto LAY Sun]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN (a coalition of Partido Popular Cristiano and Partido Solidaridad Nacional) [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Possible (Peru Posible) or PP [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]; Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Alan GARCIA] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA); Peruvian Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista Peruano) or PNP [Ollanta HUMALA Tasso]; Union dla Peru (Union por el Peru) or UPP [Aldo ESTRADA Choque] American Popular Revolutionary Alliance or APRA (now Peruvian Aprista Party or PAP as of kwiecien 2001) [Alan GARCIA]; Independent Moralizing Front or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Posible or PP [Luis SOLARI]; Popular Action or AP [Javier DIAZ Orihuela]; Solucion Popular [Carlos BOLANA]; Somos Peru or SP [Alberto ANDRADE]; Union dla Peru or UPP [Roger GUERRA Garcia]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)] leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]
Ludnosc 28,674,757 (lipiec 2007 est.) 27,949,639 (lipiec 2002 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 44.5% (2006) 50% (2000 est.)
Przyrost naturalny 1.289% (2007 est.) 1.66% (2002 est.)
Porty i stocznie - Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Matarani, Paita, Puerto Maldonado, Salaverry, San Martin, Talara, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas


note: Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are all on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries
Stacje radiowe AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999) AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)
Radia - 6.65 million (1997)
Linie kolejowe total: 1,989 km


standard gauge: 1,726 km 1.435-m gauge


narrow gauge: 263 km 0.914-m gauge (2006)
total: 2,102 km


standard gauge: 1,695 km 1.435-m gauge


narrow gauge: 407 km 0.914-m gauge (2001)
Religie Roman Catholic 81%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.4%, other Christian 0.7%, other 0.6%, unspecified or none 16.3% (2003 est.) Roman Catholic 90%
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.036 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.013 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.892 male(s)/female


total population: 1.013 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female


total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70; note - dla the first time w recent elections, members of the military and national police were eligible to vote w the 2006 elections 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: adequate dla most requirements


domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 8 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, has increased to about 30 telephones per 100 persons; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system z 12 earth stations


international: country code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki)
general assessment: adequate dla most requirements


domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system z 12 earth stations


international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Ocean Atlantycki); Pan American submarine cable
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 2.332 million (2006) 1.8 million (2000)
Telefony komorkowe 8.5 million (2006) 504,995 (1998)
Stacje telewizyjne 13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997) 13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)
Uksztaltowanie terenu western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes w center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva) western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes w center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 2.46 children born/woman (2007 est.) 2.89 children born/woman (2002 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 7.4% w metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment (2007 est.) 9%; widespread underemployment (2001 est.)
Drogi wodne 8,808 km


note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca (2007)
8,808 km


note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca
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