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Macedonia (2008)

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Macedonia 2008 roku

 Macedonia
Podzial administracyjny 85 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aerodrom (Skopje), Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Butel (Skopje), Cair (Skopje), Caska, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar, Debartsa, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Drugovo, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gjorce Petrov (Skopje), Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rastusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Saraj (Skopje), Skopje, Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci


note: the ten municipalities followed by Skopje w parentheses collectively constitute the larger Skopje Municipality
Struktura wiekowa 0-14 years: 19.8% (male 210,418/female 195,884)


15-64 years: 69.1% (male 715,997/female 704,739)


65 years and over: 11.1% (male 99,892/female 128,985) (2007 est.)
Rolinictwo grapes, wine, tobacco, vegetables; milk, eggs
Lotniska 17 (2007)
Lotniska z utwardzonymi pasami total: 10


2,438 to 3,047 m: 2


under 914 m: 8 (2007)
Lotniska z nieutwardzonymi pasami total: 7


914 to 1,523 m: 3


under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Terytorium total: 25,333 sq km


land: 24,856 sq km


water: 477 sq km
Terytorium - porownanie wielkosci slightly larger than Vermont
Tlo historyczne Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Jugoslawia w 1991, but Grecja's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols delayed international recognition, which occurred under the provisional designation of "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia." In 1995, Grecja lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations. The Stany Zjednoczone began referring to Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia, w 2004 and negotiations continue between Grecja and Macedonia to resolve the name issue. Some ethnic Albanians, angered by perceived political and economic inequities, launched an insurgency w 2001 that eventually won the support of the majority of Macedonia's Albanian population and led to the internationally-brokered Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting by establishing a set of new laws enhancing the rights of minorities. The undetermined status of neighboring Kosowo, implementation of the Framework Agreement, and slow economic growth continue to be challenges dla Macedonia.
Wspolczynnik narodzin 12.02 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budzet revenues: $2.381 billion


expenditures: $2.456 billion (2007 est.)
Stolica name: Skopje


geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 21 26 E


time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)


daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday w marzec; ends last Sunday w pazdziernik
Klimat warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters z heavy snowfall
Linia brzegowa 0 km (landlocked)
Konstytucja adopted 17 listopad 1991, effective 20 listopad 1991; amended listopad 2001 by a series of new constitutional amendments strengthening minority rights and w 2005 z amendments related to the judiciary
Nazwa panstwa conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia


conventional short form: Macedonia


local long form: Republika Makedonija


local short form: Makedonija


note: the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)


former: People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia
Wspolczynnik zgonow 8.78 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Zadluzenie - zewnetrzne $2.561 billion (31 grudzien 2007 est.)
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna ze strony USA chief of mission: Ambassador Gillian A. MILOVANOVIC


embassy: Bul. Ilindenska bb, 1000 Skopje


mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, US Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)


telephone: [389] 2 311-6180


FAX: [389] 2 311-7103
Reprezentacja dyplomatyczna w USA chief of mission: Ambassador Zoran JOLEVSKI


chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008


telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501


FAX: [1] (202) 667-2131


consulate(s) general: Southfield (Michigan)
Miedzynarodowe dyskusje ethnic Albanians w Kosowo object to demarcation of the boundary z Serbia w accordance z the 2000 Macedonia-Federalna Republika Jugoslawii delimitation agreement; Grecja continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia
Ekonomiczna pomoc - pobieranie $230.3 million (2005)
Ekonomia At independence w wrzesien 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Jugoslawia ended transfer payments from the central government and eliminated advantages from inclusion w a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on the downsized Jugoslawia, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. Produkt krajowy brutto subsequently rose each year through 2000. However, the leadership's commitment to economic reform, free trade, and regional integration was undermined by the ethnic Albanian insurgency of 2001. The economy shrank 4.5% because of decreased trade, intermittent border closures, increased deficit spending on security needs, and investor uncertainty. Growth barely recovered w 2002 to 0.9%, then averaged 4% per year during 2003-07. Macedonia has maintained macroeconomic stability z low inflation, but it has so far lagged the region w attracting foreign investment and job creation despite making extensive fiscal and business sector reforms. Official unemployment remains the highest w Europe at 35%, but may be somewhat overstated based on the existence of an extensive gray market, estimated to be more than 20 percent of Produkt krajowy brutto, that falls outside official statistics.
Elektrycznosc - konsumpcja 8.929 billion kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - eksport 0 kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - import 2.994 billion kWh (2006)
Elektrycznosc - produkcja 5.935 billion kWh (2006)
Skrajne punkty wysokosci lowest point: Vardar River 50 m


highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m
Srodowisko - obecne problemy air pollution from metallurgical plants
Srodowisko - miedzynarodowe umowy party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Klimat Change, Klimat Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands


signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Grupy etniczne Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Roma (Gypsy) 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 census)
Kurs waluty Macedonian denars per US dollar - 45.174 (2007), 48.978 (2006), 48.92 (2005), 49.41 (2004), 54.322 (2003)
Wladza wykonawcza chief of state: President Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 12 maj 2004)


head of government: Prime Minister Nikola GRUEVSKI (since 26 sierpien 2006)


cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies w the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO/DPMNE, NSDP, PDSh/DPA, and several small parties


elections: president elected by popular vote dla a five-year term (eligible dla a second term); two-round election last held 14 kwiecien and 28 kwiecien 2004 (next to be held by kwiecien 2009); prime minister elected by the Assembly following legislative elections


election results: Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Branko CRVENKOVSKI 62.7%, Sasko KEDEV 37.3%
Eksport 0 kWh (2006)
Eksport $2.844 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Eksport 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Eksport 4,134 bbl/day (2004)
Eksport - towary food, beverages, tobacco; textiles, miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel
Eksport - partnerzy Federalna Republika Jugoslawii 23.2%, Niemcy 15.6%, Grecja 15.1%, Wlochy 9.9%, Bulgaria 5.4%, Chorwacja 5.2% (2006)
Rok podatkowy rok kalendarzowy
Opis flagi a yellow sun z eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field
Produkt krajowy brutto - podzial wg galezi przemyslu agriculture: 12.1%


industry: 28.6%


services: 59.3% (2007 est.)
Produkt krajowy brutto - realny wspolczynnik wzrostu 4.6% (2007 est.)
Koordynaty geograficzne 41 50 N, 22 00 E
Polozenie geograficzne landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
Domowy dochód albo konsumpcja wg podzialu procentowego lowest 10%: 2.4%


highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
Narkotyki major transshipment point dla Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point dla South American cocaine destined dla Europe; although not a financial center and most criminal activity is thought to be domestic, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement
Import 2.994 billion kWh (2006)
Import $4.079 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Import 95.91 million cu m (2005)
Import 23,150 bbl/day (2004)
Import - towary machinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products
Import - partnerzy Rosja 15.1%, Niemcy 9.8%, Grecja 8.5%, Federalna Republika Jugoslawii 7.5%, Bulgaria 6.7%, Wlochy 6% (2006)
Niepodleglosc 8 wrzesien 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Jugoslawia)
Wspolczynnik wzrostu produkcji w przemysle 1.6% (2007 est.)
Przemysl food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals
Wspolczynnik umieralnosci noworodkow total: 9.53 deaths/1,000 live births


male: 9.69 deaths/1,000 live births


female: 9.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflacja 2% (2007 est.)
Czlonek miedzynarodowych organizacji BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Nawadniane tereny 550 sq km (2003)
Sadownictwo Supreme Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Konstytucjaal Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - the Assembly appoints the judges
Sila robocza 890,000 (2007 est.)
Sila robocza - wg galezi gospodarki agriculture: 21.7%


industry: 32.6%


services: 45.7% (wrzesien 2006)
Granica total: 766 km


border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Grecja 246 km, Serbia 221 km
Zagospodarowanie terenu arable land: 22.01%


permanent crops: 1.79%


other: 76.2% (2005)
Jezyki Macedonian 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Roma 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 census)
System prawny based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Wladza ustawodawcza unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (120 seats; members elected by popular vote from party lists based on the percentage of the overall vote the parties gain w each of six electoral districts; to serve four-year terms)


elections: last held 5 lipiec 2006 (next to be held by lipiec 2010)


election results: percent of vote by party - VMRO-DPMNE 33%, SDSM 22%, BDI/DUI 12%, PDSh/DPA 7%, NSDP 6%, VMRO-Narodna 6%, other 14%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE 45, SDSM 32, BDI/DUI 17, PDSh/DPA 11, NSDP 7, VMRO-Narodna 6, other 2
Zywotnosc total population: 74.21 years


male: 71.73 years


female: 76.88 years (2007 est.)
Pismienni definition: age 15 and over can read and write


total population: 96.1%


male: 98.2%


female: 94.1% (2002 census)
Lokalizacja Southeastern Europe, north of Grecja
Lokalizacja na mapie Europe
Morskie obszary none (landlocked)
Wojsko Army of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM): Joint Operational Command, z subordinate Air Wing (Makedonsko Voeno Vozduhoplovstvo, MVV), Special Operations Regiment (2007)
Wojsko - wydatki (procent PKB) 6% (2005 est.)
Swieto narodowe Ilinden Uprising Day, 2 sierpien (1903); note - also known as Saint Elijah's Day
Narodowosc noun: Macedonian(s)


adjective: Macedonian
Naturalne zagrozenia high seismic risks
Surowce naturalne low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
Wspolczynnik migracji -0.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Rurociagi gas 268 km; oil 120 km (2007)
Partie polityczne i przywodcy Democratic Alliance [Pavle TRAJANOV]; Democratic League of Bosniaks [Rafet MUMINOVIC]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh/DPA [Menduh THACI]; Democratic Party of Serbs [Ivan STOILJKOVIC]; Democratic Party of Turks [Kenan HASIPI]; Democratic Renewal of Macedonia [Liljana POPOVSKA]; Democratic Union of Albanians or BDSh [BardYL MAHMUTI]; Democratic Union of Vlachs dla Macedonia [Mitko KOSTOV]; Democratic Union dla Integration or BDI/DUI [Ali AHMETI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party dla Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-People's Party or VMRO-Narodna [Gjorgji TRENDAFILOV]; League dla Democracy [Gjorgi MARJANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Jovan MANSIEVSKI]; Liberal Party [Stojan ANDOV]; National Alternative [Harun ALIU]; National Democratic Union or BDK [Hysni SHAQIR]; New Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Tito PETKOVSKI]; Party dla Democratic Prosperity or PPD/PDP [Abduljhadi VEJSELI]; Party dla European Future or PEI [Fijat CANOSKI]; Party of Free Democrats or PSD [Ljubco JORDANOVSKI]; Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM [Radmila SEKERINSKA]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV-ZINGO]; Union of Romas or SR [Saliu SHABAN]; United Party dla Emancipation or OPE [Nezdet MUSTAFA]
Przesladowania polityczne ugrupowan oraz liderow Federation of Free Trade Unions [Svetlana PETROVIC]; Federation of Trade Unions [Vanco MURATOVSKI]; Swiat Macedonian Congress [Todor PETROV]
Ludnosc 2,055,915 (lipiec 2007 est.)
Ludnosc zyjaca na skraju ubostwa 30% (2005)
Przyrost naturalny 0.263% (2007 est.)
Stacje radiowe AM 29, FM 20, shortwave 0 (1998)
Linie kolejowe total: 699 km


standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (223 km electrified) (2006)
Religie Macedonian Orthodox 64.7%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.37%, other and unspecified 1.63% (2002 census)
Wspolczynnik plci at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female


under 15 years: 1.074 male(s)/female


15-64 years: 1.016 male(s)/female


65 years and over: 0.774 male(s)/female


total population: 0.997 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Prawo wyborcze 18 years of age; universal
System telefoniczny general assessment: competition from the mobile-cellular segment of the telecommunications market has led to a drop w fixed-line telephone subscriptions


domestic: combined fixed line and mobile telephone density exceeds 90 per 100 persons


international: country code - 389
Telefony - wykorzystywane linie telefoniczne 490,900 (2006)
Telefony komorkowe 1.417 million (2006)
Stacje telewizyjne 31 (plus 166 repeaters) (1995)
Uksztaltowanie terenu mountainous territory covered z deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
Wspolczynnik nardzin przypadajacy na kobiety 1.57 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Wspolczynnik bezrobocia 35% (2007 est.)
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