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Macedonia (2008)

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Macedonia 2008 year

Administrative divisions 85 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aerodrom (Skopje), Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Butel (Skopje), Cair (Skopje), Caska, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar, Debartsa, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Drugovo, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gjorce Petrov (Skopje), Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rastusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Saraj (Skopje), Skopje, Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci

note: the ten municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute the larger Skopje Municipality
Age structure 0-14 years: 19.8% (male 210,418/female 195,884)

15-64 years: 69.1% (male 715,997/female 704,739)

65 years and over: 11.1% (male 99,892/female 128,985) (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products grapes, wine, tobacco, vegetables; milk, eggs
Airports 17 (2007)
Airports - with paved runways total: 10

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

under 914 m: 8 (2007)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Area total: 25,333 sq km

land: 24,856 sq km

water: 477 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Vermont
Background Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991, but Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols delayed international recognition, which occurred under the provisional designation of "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia." In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations. The United States began referring to Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia, in 2004 and negotiations continue between Greece and Macedonia to resolve the name issue. Some ethnic Albanians, angered by perceived political and economic inequities, launched an insurgency in 2001 that eventually won the support of the majority of Macedonia's Albanian population and led to the internationally-brokered Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting by establishing a set of new laws enhancing the rights of minorities. The undetermined status of neighboring Kosovo, implementation of the Framework Agreement, and slow economic growth continue to be challenges for Macedonia.
Birth rate 12.02 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Budget revenues: $2.381 billion

expenditures: $2.456 billion (2007 est.)
Capital name: Skopje

geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 21 26 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Climate warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991; amended November 2001 by a series of new constitutional amendments strengthening minority rights and in 2005 with amendments related to the judiciary
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia

conventional short form: Macedonia

local long form: Republika Makedonija

local short form: Makedonija

note: the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)

former: People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia
Death rate 8.78 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Debt - external $2.561 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Gillian A. MILOVANOVIC

embassy: Bul. Ilindenska bb, 1000 Skopje

mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, US Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)

telephone: [389] 2 311-6180

FAX: [389] 2 311-7103
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Zoran JOLEVSKI

chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501

FAX: [1] (202) 667-2131

consulate(s) general: Southfield (Michigan)
Disputes - international ethnic Albanians in Kosovo object to demarcation of the boundary with Serbia in accordance with the 2000 Macedonia-Serbia and Montenegro delimitation agreement; Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia
Economic aid - recipient $230.3 million (2005)
Economy - overview At independence in September 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the central government and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on the downsized Yugoslavia, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP subsequently rose each year through 2000. However, the leadership's commitment to economic reform, free trade, and regional integration was undermined by the ethnic Albanian insurgency of 2001. The economy shrank 4.5% because of decreased trade, intermittent border closures, increased deficit spending on security needs, and investor uncertainty. Growth barely recovered in 2002 to 0.9%, then averaged 4% per year during 2003-07. Macedonia has maintained macroeconomic stability with low inflation, but it has so far lagged the region in attracting foreign investment and job creation despite making extensive fiscal and business sector reforms. Official unemployment remains the highest in Europe at 35%, but may be somewhat overstated based on the existence of an extensive gray market, estimated to be more than 20 percent of GDP, that falls outside official statistics.
Electricity - consumption 8.929 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2006)
Electricity - imports 2.994 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity - production 5.935 billion kWh (2006)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Vardar River 50 m

highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m
Environment - current issues air pollution from metallurgical plants
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Roma (Gypsy) 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 census)
Exchange rates Macedonian denars per US dollar - 45.174 (2007), 48.978 (2006), 48.92 (2005), 49.41 (2004), 54.322 (2003)
Executive branch chief of state: President Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 12 May 2004)

head of government: Prime Minister Nikola GRUEVSKI (since 26 August 2006)

cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO/DPMNE, NSDP, PDSh/DPA, and several small parties

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); two-round election last held 14 April and 28 April 2004 (next to be held by April 2009); prime minister elected by the Assembly following legislative elections

election results: Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Branko CRVENKOVSKI 62.7%, Sasko KEDEV 37.3%
Exports 0 kWh (2006)
Exports $2.844 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Exports 4,134 bbl/day (2004)
Exports - commodities food, beverages, tobacco; textiles, miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel
Exports - partners Serbia and Montenegro 23.2%, Germany 15.6%, Greece 15.1%, Italy 9.9%, Bulgaria 5.4%, Croatia 5.2% (2006)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description a yellow sun with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 12.1%

industry: 28.6%

services: 59.3% (2007 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.6% (2007 est.)
Geographic coordinates 41 50 N, 22 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: 2.4%

highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
Illicit drugs major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although not a financial center and most criminal activity is thought to be domestic, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement
Imports 2.994 billion kWh (2006)
Imports $4.079 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports 95.91 million cu m (2005)
Imports 23,150 bbl/day (2004)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products
Imports - partners Russia 15.1%, Germany 9.8%, Greece 8.5%, Serbia and Montenegro 7.5%, Bulgaria 6.7%, Italy 6% (2006)
Independence 8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Yugoslavia)
Industrial production growth rate 1.6% (2007 est.)
Industries food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals
Infant mortality rate total: 9.53 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 9.69 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 9.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 2% (2007 est.)
Irrigated land 550 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Constitutional Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - the Assembly appoints the judges
Labor force 890,000 (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: 21.7%

industry: 32.6%

services: 45.7% (September 2006)
Land boundaries total: 766 km

border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Serbia 221 km
Land use arable land: 22.01%

permanent crops: 1.79%

other: 76.2% (2005)
Languages Macedonian 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Roma 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 census)
Legal system based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Legislative branch unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (120 seats; members elected by popular vote from party lists based on the percentage of the overall vote the parties gain in each of six electoral districts; to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 5 July 2006 (next to be held by July 2010)

election results: percent of vote by party - VMRO-DPMNE 33%, SDSM 22%, BDI/DUI 12%, PDSh/DPA 7%, NSDP 6%, VMRO-Narodna 6%, other 14%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE 45, SDSM 32, BDI/DUI 17, PDSh/DPA 11, NSDP 7, VMRO-Narodna 6, other 2
Life expectancy at birth total population: 74.21 years

male: 71.73 years

female: 76.88 years (2007 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 96.1%

male: 98.2%

female: 94.1% (2002 census)
Location Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM): Joint Operational Command, with subordinate Air Wing (Makedonsko Voeno Vozduhoplovstvo, MVV), Special Operations Regiment (2007)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 6% (2005 est.)
National holiday Ilinden Uprising Day, 2 August (1903); note - also known as Saint Elijah's Day
Nationality noun: Macedonian(s)

adjective: Macedonian
Natural hazards high seismic risks
Natural resources low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
Net migration rate -0.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Pipelines gas 268 km; oil 120 km (2007)
Political parties and leaders Democratic Alliance [Pavle TRAJANOV]; Democratic League of Bosniaks [Rafet MUMINOVIC]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh/DPA [Menduh THACI]; Democratic Party of Serbs [Ivan STOILJKOVIC]; Democratic Party of Turks [Kenan HASIPI]; Democratic Renewal of Macedonia [Liljana POPOVSKA]; Democratic Union of Albanians or BDSh [BardYL MAHMUTI]; Democratic Union of Vlachs for Macedonia [Mitko KOSTOV]; Democratic Union for Integration or BDI/DUI [Ali AHMETI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-People's Party or VMRO-Narodna [Gjorgji TRENDAFILOV]; League for Democracy [Gjorgi MARJANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Jovan MANSIEVSKI]; Liberal Party [Stojan ANDOV]; National Alternative [Harun ALIU]; National Democratic Union or BDK [Hysni SHAQIR]; New Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Tito PETKOVSKI]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PPD/PDP [Abduljhadi VEJSELI]; Party for European Future or PEI [Fijat CANOSKI]; Party of Free Democrats or PSD [Ljubco JORDANOVSKI]; Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM [Radmila SEKERINSKA]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV-ZINGO]; Union of Romas or SR [Saliu SHABAN]; United Party for Emancipation or OPE [Nezdet MUSTAFA]
Political pressure groups and leaders Federation of Free Trade Unions [Svetlana PETROVIC]; Federation of Trade Unions [Vanco MURATOVSKI]; World Macedonian Congress [Todor PETROV]
Population 2,055,915 (July 2007 est.)
Population below poverty line 30% (2005)
Population growth rate 0.263% (2007 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 29, FM 20, shortwave 0 (1998)
Railways total: 699 km

standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (223 km electrified) (2006)
Religions Macedonian Orthodox 64.7%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.37%, other and unspecified 1.63% (2002 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.074 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.016 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.774 male(s)/female

total population: 0.997 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: competition from the mobile-cellular segment of the telecommunications market has led to a drop in fixed-line telephone subscriptions

domestic: combined fixed line and mobile telephone density exceeds 90 per 100 persons

international: country code - 389
Telephones - main lines in use 490,900 (2006)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1.417 million (2006)
Television broadcast stations 31 (plus 166 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
Total fertility rate 1.57 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Unemployment rate 35% (2007 est.)
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