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Macedonia (2006)

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Administrative divisions 85 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aerodrom (Skopje), Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Butel (Skopje), Cair (Skopje), Caska, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar, Debartsa, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Drugovo, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gjorce Petrov (Skopje), Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rastusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Saraj (Skopje), Skopje, Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci

note: the ten municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute "greater Skopje"
Age structure 0-14 years: 20.1% (male 213,486/female 199,127)

15-64 years: 68.9% (male 711,853/female 701,042)

65 years and over: 11% (male 98,618/female 126,428) (2006 est.)
Agriculture - products grapes, wine, tobacco, vegetables; milk, eggs
Airports 17 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways total: 10

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

under 914 m: 8 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 4 (2006)
Area total: 25,333 sq km

land: 24,856 sq km

water: 477 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Vermont
Background Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991, but Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols delayed international recognition, which occurred under the provisional designation of the "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia." In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, although differences over Macedonia's name remain. The undetermined status of neighboring Kosovo, implementation of the Framework Agreement - which ended the 2001 ethnic Albanian armed insurgency - and a weak economy continue to be challenges for Macedonia.
Birth rate 12.02 births/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Budget revenues: $2.105 billion

expenditures: $2.15 billion; including capital expenditures of $114 million (2005 est.)
Capital name: Skopje

geographic coordinates: 41 59 N, 21 26 E

time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Climate warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991; amended November 2001 by a series of new constitutional amendments strengthening minority rights and in 2005 with amendments related to the judiciary
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia

conventional short form: Macedonia

local long form: Republika Makedonija

local short form: Makedonija

note: the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)

former: People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia
Death rate 8.77 deaths/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Debt - external $2.19 billion (2005 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Gillian A. MILOVANOVIC

embassy: Bul. Ilindenska bb, 1000 Skopje

mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, US Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)

telephone: [389] 2 311-6180

FAX: [389] 2 311-7103
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Ljupco JORDANOVSKI

chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501

FAX: [1] (202) 667-2131

consulate(s) general: Southfield (Michigan)
Disputes - international ethnic Albanians in Kosovo object to demarcation of the boundary with Macedonia in accordance with the 2000 Macedonia-Serbia and Montenegro delimitation agreement; Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia
Economic aid - recipient $250 million (2003 est.)
Economy - overview At independence in September 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the central government and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on the downsized Yugoslavia, one of its largest markets, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP subsequently rose each year through 2000. However, the leadership's commitment to economic reform, free trade, and regional integration was undermined by the ethnic Albanian insurgency of 2001. The economy shrank 4.5% because of decreased trade, intermittent border closures, increased deficit spending on security needs, and investor uncertainty. Growth barely recovered in 2002 to 0.9%, then rose by 3.4% in 2003, 4.1% in 2004, and 3.7% in 2005. Macedonia has maintained macroeconomic stability with low inflation, but it has lagged the region in attracting foreign investment and job growth has been anemic. Macedonia has an extensive grey market, estimated to be more than 20 percent of GDP, that falls outside official statistics.
Electricity - consumption 7.933 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity - imports 1.662 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity - production 6.271 billion kWh (2005)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Vardar River 50 m

highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m
Environment - current issues air pollution from metallurgical plants
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Roma 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 census)
Exchange rates Macedonian denars per US dollar - 48.92 (2005), 49.41 (2004), 54.322 (2003), 64.35 (2002), 68.037 (2001)
Executive branch chief of state: President Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 12 May 2004)

head of government: Prime Minister Nikola GRUEVSKI (since 28 August 2006)

cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO/DPMNE, NSDP, PDSH/DPA, and several small parties

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); two-round election last held 14 April and 28 April 2004 (next to be held by April 2009); prime minister elected by the Assembly following legislative elections

election results: Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Branko CRVENKOVSKI 62.7%, Sasko KEDEV 37.3%
Exports 0 kWh (2005)
Exports $2.047 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Exports NA bbl/day
Exports - commodities food, beverages, tobacco; miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel
Exports - partners Germany 17.8%, Greece 15.3%, Italy 8.3% (2005)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description a yellow sun with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 11.8%

industry: 31.9%

services: 56.3% (2005 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 4% (2005 est.)
Geographic coordinates 41 50 N, 22 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA%

highest 10%: NA%
Illicit drugs major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although not a financial center and most criminal activity is thought to be domestic, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement (no arrests or prosecutions for money laundering to date)
Imports 1.662 billion kWh (2005)
Imports $3.196 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.)
Imports NA bbl/day
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products
Imports - partners Russia 13.2%, Germany 10.4%, Greece 9.2%, Bulgaria 7.3%, Italy 6% (2005)
Independence 8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsing independence from Yugoslavia)
Industrial production growth rate 6.8% (2005 est.)
Industries food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals
Infant mortality rate total: 9.81 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 9.94 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 9.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2006 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 0% (2005 est.)
Irrigated land 550 sq km (2003)
Judicial branch Supreme Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Constitutional Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - the Assembly appoints the judges
Labor force 855,000 (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture: NA%

industry: NA%

services: NA%
Land boundaries total: 766 km

border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Serbia 221 km
Land use arable land: 22.01%

permanent crops: 1.79%

other: 76.2% (2005)
Languages Macedonian 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Roma 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 census)
Legal system based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Legislative branch unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (120 seats - members elected by popular vote from party lists based on the percentage of the overall vote the parties gain in each of six electoral districts; all serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 5 July 2006 (next to be held by July 2010)

election results: percent of vote by party - VMRO-DPMNE 32.5%, SDSM 23.3%, DUI 12.2%, PDSH/DPA 7.5%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE 44, SDSM 32, DUI 28, PDSH/DPA 11, other 5
Life expectancy at birth total population: 73.97 years

male: 71.51 years

female: 76.62 years (2006 est.)
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 96.1%

male: 98.2%

female: 94.1% (2002 est.)
Location Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM): Joint Operational Command, with subordinate Air Wing (Makedonsko Voeno Vozduhoplovstvo, MVV), Special Force Command (2006)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $200 million (FY01/02 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 6% (FY01/02 est.)
National holiday Uprising Day, 2 August (1903); note - also known as Saint Elijah's Day and Ilinden
Nationality noun: Macedonian(s)

adjective: Macedonian
Natural hazards high seismic risks
Natural resources low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
Net migration rate -0.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.)
Pipelines gas 268 km; oil 120 km (2006)
Political parties and leaders Democratic Alliance [Pavle TRAJANOV]; Democratic Alternative or DA [Vasil TUPURKOVSKI]; Democratic League of the Bosniaks [Rafet MUMINOVIC]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSH/DPA [Arben XHAFERI]; Democratic Party of Serbs [Ivan STOILJKOVIC]; Democratic Party of Turks [Kenan HASIPI]; Democratic Renewal of Macedonia [Liljana POPOVSKA]; Democratic Republican Union of Macedonia or DRUM [Goran RAFAJLOVSKI]; Democratic Union of Vlachs for Macedonia [Mitko KOSTOV]; Democratic Union for Integration or DUI [Ali AHMETI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Macedonian [Boris STOJMENOV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-People's Party or VMRO-Narodna [Vesna JANEVSKA, acting]; League for Democracy [Gjorgi MARJANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Risto PENOV]; Liberal Party [Stojan ANDOV]; National Alternative [Harun ALIU]; National Democratic Party or PDK [Basri HALITI]; National Farmers' Party [Vejljo TANTAROV]; New Democratic Forces [Hysni SHAQIRI]; New Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Tito PETKOVSKI]; Party for Democratic Future [Alajdin DEMIRI]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PPD/PDP [Abduljhadi VEJSELI]; Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM [Vlado BUCKOVSKI]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV-ZINGO]; United Party for Emancipation or OPE [Nezdet MUSTAFA]
Political pressure groups and leaders Civic Movement of Macedonia [Gordana SILJANOVSKA]; World Macedonian Congress [Todor PETROV]
Population 2,050,554 (July 2006 est.)
Population below poverty line 29.6% (2004 est.)
Population growth rate 0.26% (2006 est.)
Radio broadcast stations AM 29, FM 20, shortwave 0 (1998)
Railways total: 699 km

standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (233 km electrified) (2005)
Religions Macedonian Orthodox 64.7%, other Christian 0.37%, Muslim 33.3%, other and unspecified 1.63% (2002 census)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: country code - 389
Telephones - main lines in use 533,200 (2005)
Telephones - mobile cellular 1.261 million (2005)
Television broadcast stations 31 (plus 166 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
Total fertility rate 1.57 children born/woman (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate 37.3% (2005 est.)
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