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Macedonia (2004)

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Macedonia 2004 year

Administrative divisions 123 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aracinovo, Bac, Belcista, Berovo, Bistrica, Bitola, Blatec, Bogdanci, Bogomila, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Cair (Skopje), Capari, Caska, Cegrane, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar, Delcevo, Delogozdi, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dobrusevo, Dolna Banjica, Dolneni, Dorce Petrov (Skopje), Drugovo, Dzepciste, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Izvor, Jegunovce, Kamenjane, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Klecevce, Kocani, Konce, Kondovo, Konopiste, Kosel, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kuklis, Kukurecani, Kumanovo, Labunista, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Lukovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovi Anovi, Meseista, Miravci, Mogila, Murtino, Negotino, Negotino-Polosko, Novaci, Novo Selo, Oblesevo, Ohrid, Orasac, Orizari, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Podares, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Rostusa, Samokov, Saraj, Sipkovica, Sopiste, Sopotnica, Srbinovo, Star Dojran, Staravina, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Topolcani, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Velesta, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vitoliste, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Vratnica, Vrutok, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zeleno, Zitose, Zletovo, Zrnovci

note: the seven municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute "greater Skopje"; new information suggests that the 123 municipalities have been consolidated into 84 municipalities
Age structure 0-14 years: 21.5% (male 231,078; female 213,906)

15-64 years: 67.8% (male 707,298; female 696,830)

65 years and over: 10.7% (male 97,437; female 124,661) (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products rice, tobacco, wheat, corn, millet, cotton, sesame, mulberry leaves, citrus, vegetables; beef, pork, poultry, mutton
Airports 17 (2003 est.)
Airports - with paved runways total: 10

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2

under 914 m: 8 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways total: 7

914 to 1,523 m: 3

under 914 m: 4 (2004 est.)
Area total: 25,333 sq km

land: 24,856 sq km

water: 477 sq km
Area - comparative slightly larger than Vermont
Background International recognition of Macedonia's independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 was delayed by Greece's objection to the new state's use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols. Greece finally lifted its trade blockade in 1995 and the two countries agreed to normalize relations, although differences over Macedonia's name remain. The undetermined status of neighboring Kosovo, implementation of the Framework Agreement - which ended the 2001 ethnic Albanian armed insurgency - and a weak economy continue to be challenges for Macedonia.
Birth rate 13.14 births/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Budget revenues: $1.582 billion

expenditures: $1.661 billion, including capital expenditures of $80 million NA (2003 est.)
Capital Skopje
Climate warm, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Constitution adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991

note: in November of 2001, the Macedonian Assembly approved a series of new constitutional amendments strengthening minority rights
Country name conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia

conventional short form: Macedonia; note - the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)

local long form: Republika Makedonija

local short form: Makedonija

former: People's Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia
Currency Macedonian denar (MKD)
Death rate 7.83 deaths/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Debt - external $1.929 billion (2003 est.)
Diplomatic representation from the US chief of mission: Ambassador Lawrence Edward BUTLER

embassy: Bul. Ilindenska bb, 1000 Skopje

mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)

telephone: [389] 2 311-6180

FAX: [389] 2 311-7103
Diplomatic representation in the US chief of mission: Ambassador Nikola DIMITROV

chancery: Suite 302, 1101 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007

telephone: [1] (202) 337-3063

FAX: [1] (202) 337-3093

consulate(s) general: Southfield, Michigan
Disputes - international the Albanian government calls for the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians in Macedonia while continuing to seek regional cooperation; ethnic Albanians in Kosovo resist demarcation of a small section of the Macedonia-Kosovo boundary in accordance with the 2000 delimitation treaty, which transferred a small amount of land to Macedonia; dispute with Greece over country's name persists
Economic aid - recipient $250 million (2003 est.)
Economy - overview At independence in September 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the center and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on Yugoslavia, one of its largest markets, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the country's constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP subsequently rose each year through 2000. However, the leadership's commitment to economic reform, free trade, and regional integration was undermined by the ethnic Albanian insurgency of 2001. The economy shrank 4.5% because of decreased trade, intermittent border closures, increased deficit spending on security needs, and investor uncertainty. Growth barely recovered in 2002 to 0.9%, then rose to 2.8% in 2003. Unemployment at one-third of the workforce remains the most critical economic problem. The gray economy is estimated at around 40% of GDP. Politically, the country is more stable than in 2002.
Electricity - consumption 6.112 billion kWh (2001)
Electricity - exports 0 kWh (2001)
Electricity - imports 100 million kWh (2001)
Electricity - production 6.465 billion kWh (2001)
Elevation extremes lowest point: Vardar River 50 m

highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m
Environment - current issues air pollution from metallurgical plants
Environment - international agreements party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Ethnic groups Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.8%, Roma 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.3% (2002)
Exchange rates Macedonian denars per US dollar - NA (2003), 64.3498 (2002), 68.0371 (2001), 65.9039 (2000), 56.9018 (1999)
Executive branch chief of state: President Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 12 May 2004)

head of government: Prime Minister Vlado BUCKOVSKI (since 17 December 2004)

cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties SDSM, LDP, and BDI

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; two-round election last held 14 April and 28 April 2004 (next to be held April 2009); prime minister elected by the Assembly; election last held 1 November 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)

election results: Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Branko CRVENKOVSKI 62.7%, Sasko KEDEV 37.3%; Vlado BUCKOVSKI elected prime minister by the Assembly
Exports 0 kWh (2001)
Exports $1.346 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Exports NA (2001)
Exports - commodities food, beverages, tobacco; miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel
Exports - partners Serbia and Montenegro 37.8%, Germany 27%, Italy 14.7%, Greece 9.7%, Croatia 6.9%, US 6.1%, Netherlands 4.8% (2003)
Fiscal year calendar year
Flag description a yellow sun with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field
GDP purchasing power parity - $13.81 billion (2003 est.)
GDP - composition by sector agriculture: 11.3%

industry: 32.1%

services: 56.6% (2003 est.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity - $6,700 (2003 est.)
GDP - real growth rate 2.8% (2003 est.)
Geographic coordinates 41 50 N, 22 00 E
Geography - note landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe
Highways total: 8,684 km

paved: 5,540 km (including 133 km of expressways)

unpaved: 3,144 km (1999 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA
Illicit drugs major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and hashish; minor transit point for South American cocaine destined for Europe; although most criminal activity is thought to be domestic and not a financial center, money laundering is a problem due to a mostly cash-based economy and weak enforcement (no arrests or prosecutions for money laundering to date)
Imports 100 million kWh (2001)
Imports $2.184 billion f.o.b. (2003 est.)
Imports NA (2001)
Imports - commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels; food products
Imports - partners Greece 17.3%, Germany 12.6%, Serbia and Montenegro 9.2%, Slovenia 7.9%, Bulgaria 7.4%, Italy 6.2%, Turkey 6% (2003)
Independence 8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsing independence from Yugoslavia)
Industrial production growth rate 4.5% (2003 est.)
Industries coal, metallic chromium, lead, zinc, ferronickel, textiles, wood products, tobacco, food processing, buses, steel
Infant mortality rate total: 11.74 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 12.67 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 10.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 1.2% (2003 est.)
Irrigated land 550 sq km (1998 est.)
Judicial branch Supreme Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Constitutional Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - the Assembly appoints the judges
Labor force 860,000 (2003 est.)
Labor force - by occupation agriculture NA, industry NA, services NA
Land boundaries total: 766 km

border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Serbia and Montenegro 221 km
Land use arable land: 22.26%

permanent crops: 1.81%

other: 75.93% (2001)
Languages Macedonian 68%, Albanian 25%, Turkish 3%, Serbo-Croatian 2%, other 2%
Legal system based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts
Legislative branch unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (120 seats - members elected by popular vote from party lists based on the percentage of the overall vote the parties gain in each of six electoral districts; all serve four-year terms)

elections: last held 15 September 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - Together for Macedonia coalition 60 (SDSM 43, LDP 12, others 5), VMRO-DPMNE 33 (VMRO 28 and LDT 5), Democratic Union for Integration 16, Democratic Party of Albanians 7, Party for Democratic Prosperity 2, National Democratic Party 1, Socialist Party of Macedonia 1
Life expectancy at birth total population: 74.73 years

male: 72.45 years

female: 77.2 years (2004 est.)
Literacy definition: NA

total population: NA

male: NA

female: NA
Location Southeastern Europe, north of Greece
Map references Europe
Maritime claims none (landlocked)
Military branches Army of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM; including Air and Air Defense Command)
Military expenditures - dollar figure $200 million (FY01/02 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP 6% (FY01/02 est.)
Military manpower - availability males age 15-49: 555,611 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service males age 15-49: 448,095 (2004 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually males: 17,595 (2004 est.)
National holiday Uprising Day, 2 August (1903); note - also known as Saint Elijah's Day and Ilinden
Nationality noun: Macedonian(s)

adjective: Macedonian
Natural hazards high seismic risks
Natural resources low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land
Net migration rate -1.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2004 est.)
Pipelines gas 268 km; oil 120 km (2004)
Political parties and leaders Democratic Alliance [Pavle TRAJANOV]; Democratic Alternative or DA [Vasil TUPURKOVSKI, president]; Democratic League of the Bosniaks [Rafet MUMINOVIC]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSH/DPA [Arben XHAFERI, president]; Democratic Party of Serbs [Ivan STOILJKOVIC]; Democratic Party of Turks [Kenan HASIPI]; Democratic Republican Union of Macedonia or DRUM [Dosta DIMOVSKA]; Democratic Union of Vlachs for Macedonia [leader NA]; Democratic Union for Integration or BDI/DUI [Ali AHMETI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Agrarian Party or VMRO-Agrarian Party [Marjan GJORCEV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE (including VMRO and LDT) [Nikola GRUEVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-True Macedonian Option or VMRO-Vistinska [Boris ZMEJKOVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Macedonian [Boris STOJMENOV]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-People's Party or VMRO-Narodna [Vesna JANEVSKA]; League for Democracy [Gjorgi MARJANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Risto PENOV]; Liberal Party [Stojan ANDOV]; National Democratic Party or PDK [Basri HALITI]; National Farmers' Party [VejljoTANTAROV]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PPD/PDP [Abduljhadi VEJSELI]; Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM [Vlado BUCKOVSKI, president]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV, president]; Together for Macedonia coalition (including the SDSM and LDP) [Vlado BUCKOVSI]; United Party for Emancipation or OPE [Nezdet MUSTAFA]
Political pressure groups and leaders Civic Movement of Macedonia [Gordana SILJANOVSKA]; Movement for Macedonia's Euro-Atlantic Integration [Dosta DIMOVSKA]
Population 2,071,210 (July 2004 est.)
Population below poverty line 30.2% (2002 est.)
Population growth rate 0.39% (2004 est.)
Ports and harbors none
Radio broadcast stations AM 29, FM 20, shortwave 0 (1998)
Railways total: 699 km

standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (233 km electrified) (2003)
Religions Macedonian Orthodox 70%, Muslim 29%, other 1%
Sex ratio at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female

under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female

15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Suffrage 18 years of age; universal
Telephone system general assessment: NA

domestic: NA

international: country code - 389
Telephones - main lines in use 560,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular 365,300 (2002)
Television broadcast stations 31 (plus 166 repeaters) (1995)
Terrain mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River
Total fertility rate 1.74 children born/woman (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate 36.7% (2003 est.)
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